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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from__________ to __________
Commission File Number 001-38534
https://cdn.kscope.io/da5890ffa82274ac0ef10dddb7a2e42a-amtb-20201231_g1.jpg
Amerant Bancorp Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Florida
65-0032379
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
220 Alhambra Circle, Coral Gables, Florida
33134
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (305) 460-8728
_________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol (s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.10 per share
AMTBNASDAQ

Class B Common Stock, par value $0.10 per share

AMTBB

NASDAQ
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: NONE
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes ☐      No  ☒

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ☐    No  ☒

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ☒  No  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ☒    No  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer  
Smaller reporting company
  
Emerging growth company 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  ☒
The aggregate market value of the Class A common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the closing price of a share of the registrant’s Class A common stock on June 30, 2020 as reported by the NASDAQ Global Select Market on such date, was approximately $336 million. The aggregate market value of the Class B common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based on the closing price of a share of the registrant’s Class B common stock on June 30, 2020 as reported by the NASDAQ Global Select Market on such date, was approximately $119 million.

The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s classes of common stock as of March 5, 2021: Class A Common Stock, par value $0.10 per share, 28,996,122 shares; Class B Common Stock, par value $0.10 per share, 9,036,352 shares.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement pursuant to Regulation 14A for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders, to be filed within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year end, are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.


Table of Contents
AMERANT BANCORP INC.
FORM 10-K
December 31, 2020
TABLE OF CONTENT
Page


Table of Contents
PART I

In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, or Form 10-K, unless otherwise required by the context, the terms “we,” “our,” “us,” and the “Company,” refer to Amerant Bancorp Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries including its wholly-owned main operating subsidiary, Amerant Bank, N.A., which we individually refer to as “the Bank”.

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
Various of the statements made in this Form 10-K, including information incorporated herein by reference to other documents, are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of, and subject to, the protections of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”).

Forward-looking statements include statements with respect to our beliefs, plans, objectives, goals, expectations, anticipations, assumptions, estimates, intentions and future performance and condition, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, which may be beyond our control, and which may cause the actual results, performance, achievements, or financial condition of the Company to be materially different from future results, performance, achievements, or financial condition expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. You should not expect us to update any forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements should be read together with the “Risk Factors” included in this Form 10-K and our other reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).

All statements other than statements of historical fact are statements that could be forward-looking statements. You can identify these forward-looking statements through our use of words such as “may,” “will,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “seek,” “should,” “indicate,” “would,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “consider”, “expect,” “estimate,” “continue,” “plan,” “point to,” “project,” “could,” “intend,” “target” and other similar words and expressions of the future. These forward-looking statements may not be realized due to a variety of factors, including, without limitation:

Our profitability is subject to interest rate risk;
We may be adversely affected by the transition of LIBOR as a reference rate;
Our concentration of CRE loans;
Many of our loans are to commercial borrowers, which have unique risks compared to other types of loans.
Our allowance for loan losses may prove inadequate;
The collateral securing our loans may not be sufficient to protect us from a partial or complete loss;
Liquidity risks could affect our operations and jeopardize our financial condition and certain funding sources could increase our interest rate expense;
Our valuation of securities and investments and the determination of the impairment amounts taken on our investments are subjective and, if changed, could materially adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition;
Our strategic plan and growth strategy may not be achieved as quickly or as fully as we seek;
Nonperforming and similar assets take significant time to resolve;
We may be contractually obligated to repurchase mortgage loans we sold to third parties on terms unfavorable to us;
Mortgage Servicing Rights requirements may change and require us to incur additional costs and risks;
Our success depends on our ability to compete effectively in highly competitive markets;
Defaults by or deteriorating asset quality of other financial institutions could adversely affect us;
We could be required to write down our goodwill and other intangible assets;
Our historical consolidated financial data are not necessarily representative of the results we would have achieved as a separate company and may not be a reliable indicator of our future results;
1

Table of Contents
Our ability to raise additional capital in the future;.
Conditions in Venezuela could adversely affect our operations;
The COVID-19 pandemic and actions taken by governmental authorities to mitigate its spread has significantly impacted economic conditions, and a future outbreak of COVID-19 or another highly contagious disease, could adversely affect our business activities, results of operations and financial condition;
As a participating lender in the U.S. Small Business Administration Paycheck Protection Program, we are subject to additional risks of litigation from the Bank’s customers or other parties regarding the Bank’s processing of loans for the PPP and risks that the SBA may not fund some or all PPP loan guaranties;
Potential gaps in our risk management policies and internal audit procedures may leave us exposed to unidentified or unanticipated risk;
We may determine that our internal controls and disclosure controls could have deficiencies or weaknesses;
Technological changes affect our business including potentially impacting the revenue stream of traditional products and services, and we may have fewer resources than many competitors to invest in technological improvements;
Our information systems may experience interruptions and security breaches, and are exposed to cybersecurity threats;
Any failure to protect the confidentiality of customer information could adversely affect our reputation and subject us to financial sanctions;
Future acquisitions and expansion activities may disrupt our business, dilute shareholder value and adversely affect our operating results;
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our debt;
We and Amerant Florida Bancorp Inc., the subsidiary guarantor, are each a holding company with limited operations and depend on our subsidiaries for the funds required to make payments of principal and interest on our debt;
We may incur a substantial level of debt that could materially adversely affect our ability to generate sufficient cash to fulfill our obligations under the Senior Notes;
Our business may be adversely affected by economic conditions in general and by conditions in the financial markets;
We are subject to extensive regulation that could limit or restrict our activities and adversely affect our earnings;
Litigation and regulatory investigations are increasingly common in our businesses and may result in significant financial losses and/or harm to our reputation;
We are subject to capital adequacy and liquidity standards, and if we fail to meet these standards our financial condition and operations would be adversely affected;
We will be subject to heightened regulatory requirements if our total assets grow in excess of $10 billion;
The Federal Reserve may require us to commit capital resources to support the Bank;
We may face higher risks of noncompliance with the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations than other financial institutions;
Failures to comply with the fair lending laws, CFPB regulations or the Community Reinvestment Act, or CRA, could adversely affect us;
A limited market exists for the Company's shares of Class B common stock;
Holders of shares of Class B common stock have limited voting rights. As a result, holders of shares of Class B common stock will have limited ability to influence shareholder decisions;
Certain of our existing shareholders could exert significant control over the Company;
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our common stock and trading volume could decline;
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The stock price of financial institutions, like Amerant, may fluctuate significantly;
We have the ability to issue additional equity securities, which would lead to dilution of our issued and outstanding Company Shares;
Our dual classes of Company Shares may limit investments by investors using index-based strategies;
We do not currently intend to pay dividends on our common stock;
Certain provisions of our amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, Florida law, and U.S. banking laws could have anti-takeover effects;
We are an “emerging growth company,” and, as a result of the reduced disclosure and governance requirements applicable to emerging growth companies, our common stock may be less attractive to investors;
We may be unable to attract and retain key people to support our business;
Severe weather, natural disasters, global pandemics, acts of war or terrorism, theft, civil unrest, government expropriation or other external events could have significant effects on our business;
the other factors and information in this Form 10-K and other filings that we make with the SEC under the Exchange Act and Securities Act. See “Risk Factors” in this Form 10-K.

The foregoing factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read together with the other cautionary statements included in this Form 10-K. Because of these risks and other uncertainties, our actual future financial condition, results, performance or achievements, or industry results, may be materially different from the results indicated by the forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K. In addition, our past results of operations are not necessarily indicative of our future results of operations. You should not rely on any forward-looking statements as predictions of future events.
All written or oral forward-looking statements that are made by us or are attributable to us are expressly qualified in their entirety by this cautionary note. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we do not undertake any obligation to update, revise or correct any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, except as required by law.
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Item 1. BUSINESS
Our Company
We are a bank holding company headquartered in Coral Gables, Florida, with $7.8 billion in assets, $5.8 billion in loans held for investment, $5.7 billion in deposits, $783.4 million of shareholders’ equity, and $2.0 billion in assets under management and custody (“AUMs”) as of December 31, 2020. We provide individuals and businesses a comprehensive array of deposit, credit, investment, wealth management, retail banking and fiduciary services. We serve customers in our United States markets and select international customers. These services are offered through Amerant Bank, N.A., or the Bank, which is also headquartered in Coral Gables, Florida, and its subsidiaries. Fiduciary, investment and wealth management services are provided by the Bank’s national trust company subsidiary, Amerant Trust, N.A., or Amerant Trust, the Bank’s securities broker-dealer subsidiary, Amerant Investments, Inc., or Amerant Investments, the Bank’s Grand Cayman based trust company subsidiary, Elant Bank & Trust Ltd., or the Cayman Bank, and the newly formed mortgage company, Amerant Mortgage, LLC. or Amerant Mortgage.
The Bank was founded in 1979 and is the second largest community bank headquartered in Florida. We currently operate 25 banking centers where we offer personal and commercial banking services. The Bank’s three primary markets are South Florida, where we operate eighteen banking centers in Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach counties; the greater Houston, Texas area, where we have 7 banking centers that serve the nearby areas of Harris, Montgomery, Fort Bend and Waller counties and a loan production office, or LPO, in Dallas, Texas, which we opened in early 2019; and the greater New York City area, where we also maintain a LPO that focuses on originating Commercial Real Estate (“CRE”) loans.
We have no foreign offices. The Cayman Bank does not maintain any physical offices in the Cayman Islands and has a registered agent in Grand Cayman as required by applicable regulations.
Our History
From 1987 through December 31, 2017, we were a wholly-owned subsidiary of Mercantil Servicios Financieros, C.A., which we refer to as the Former Parent. On August 10, 2018, we completed our spin-off from the Former Parent, or the Spin-off, through the distribution of 19,814,992 shares of our Class A common stock and 14,218,596 shares of our Class B common stock, in each case adjusted for a reverse stock split completed on October 24, 2018. Following the Spin-off, the Former Parent retained 19.9% of our Class A common stock, the Class A Retained Shares, and 19.9% of our Class B common stock, the Class B Retained Shares. Our shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock, together the Company Shares, began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on August 13, 2018.
On December 21, 2018, we completed an initial public offering, the IPO, of 6,300,000 shares of Class A common stock. The Former Parent sold all 4,922,477 shares of its Class A Retained Shares in the IPO. We received no proceeds from the Former Parent’s sale of its Class A Retained Shares in the IPO. We sold 1,377,523 shares of our Class A common stock in the IPO and used all of the proceeds we received to repurchase 1,420,135.66 Class B Retained Shares from the Former Parent. In January 2019, we sold an additional 229,019 shares of our Class A common stock when the underwriters in the IPO completed the partial exercise of their over-allotment option which was granted in connection with the IPO.
At December 31, 2018, the Former Parent beneficially owned less than 5% of all of the Company’s outstanding shares of common stock and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or the Federal Reserve, determined that the Former Parent no longer controlled the Company for purposes of the BHC Act. In March 2019, we completed the repurchase of the remaining Class B Retained Shares from the Former Parent. Following this repurchase, the Former Parent no longer owns any Company Shares.
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Our Class A common stock and Class B common stock are listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbols “AMTB” and “AMTBB,” respectively.
Amerant Trust Merger
On December 30, 2020 we filed applications with the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, or OCC, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, or FDIC, seeking approval to consolidate our existing trust and wealth management business, presently conducted by Amerant Trust, with the commercial banking business conducted by the Bank, by merging Amerant Trust with and into the Bank.

The merger of Amerant Trust with the Bank is intended to simplify Amerant’s organizational structure, enhance oversight and management functions, and eliminate redundant compliance, reporting and other administrative costs. The transaction represents an internal corporate reorganization of the Bank with its wholly-owned, consolidated subsidiary, and it is not expected to result in any substantive change in the products or services presently offered by either the Bank or Amerant Trust. No offices of either entity will be closed or relocated.

On February 12, 2021, the merger of Amerant Trust with the Bank was approved by the FDIC and subsequently, on March 3, 2021, the OCC issued an official certification authorizing the merger as well as for the Bank to exercise fiduciary powers. The consolidation of Amerant Trust with the Bank will be effective April 1st, 2021.

Amerant Mortgage

We recently incorporated a new operating subsidiary, Amerant Mortgage, in partnership with a team of highly specialized residential real estate executives with a long track record of success in the residential mortgage arena. Responding to the growing demand for residential mortgages, Amerant Mortgage will offer a full complement of residential lending solutions including conventional, government, Jumbo loans, and unique product offerings, ideally positioning the Company to become a true market leader. Additionally, Amerant’s residential mortgage team has been rolled into Amerant Mortgage. We expect Amerant Mortgage to be fully operational by the second quarter of 2021.

New Brand
We began the transition to our new Amerant brand and logo in the fourth quarter of 2018. In October 2018, our principal subsidiaries incorporated the Amerant brand into their corporate names and in the following months we proceeded to fully incorporate the Amerant brand throughout the Company and its communications, products, signs and services. On June 4, 2019, the Company’s stockholders approved a proposal to change the Company’s name Amerant Bancorp Inc. Each of the Company, the Bank and its principal subsidiaries now operate under the “Amerant” brand.
For the purpose of effecting the Spin-off, we and our Former Parent entered into a separation agreement. Under this separation agreement, our Former Parent granted us a two-year license commencing on the date of the distribution associated with the Spin-off to use its name and marks in connection with our business. No fees were payable for the first year of the license and since we completed the rebranding and ceased to use all of our Former Parent’s name and marks prior to the first anniversary of the Spin-off. No fees were paid to our Former Parent for the use of its name and marks.

Segments
Prior to the second quarter of 2019, the Company had four reportable segments: Personal and Commercial Banking, Corporate LATAM, Treasury and Institutional. Results of these segments were presented on a managed basis. This structure was driven, among other things, by how the Company previously managed the business, how internal reporting was prepared and analyzed, and how management made decisions.

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In August 2019, the Company announced that, due to changes in the structure of its internal organization, it would report its financial performance as a single operating segment beginning with the quarter ended June 30, 2019. This change was consistent with the Company’s strategic shift to focus on community banking after the spin-off from its Former Parent in August 2018, and the rebranding of the Company launched in April 2019. As part of this strategic shift, the Company significantly reduced its international lending activities which had been largely allocated to the Corporate LATAM segment. As a result of these changes, all decisions, including those relating to loan growth and concentrations, deposit and other funding, market risk, credit risk, operational risk and pricing are now made after assessing their effects on the Company as a whole, using a single segment concept. Management determined that no separate current or historical reportable segment disclosures are required under generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”).
Our Markets

Our primary market areas are South Florida, the greater Houston, Texas and the greater New York City area, especially the five New York City boroughs. We serve our market areas from our headquarters in Coral Gables, Florida, and through a network of 18 banking locations in South Florida and seven banking locations in the greater Houston, Texas area. We also maintain a LPO in New York, New York that focuses on originating CRE loans, and a LPO in Dallas, Texas that originates all types of commercial loans. As part of our strategic plan, in addition to expansion in our domestic market areas, we may further diversify our markets through entry into other large metropolitan markets, especially in other major cities in Texas. Expansion may include LPOs and banking centers.
Credit Policies and Procedures
General. We adhere to what we believe are disciplined underwriting standards. We maintain asset quality through an emphasis on local market knowledge, long-term customer relationships, consistent and thorough underwriting for all loans and a conservative credit culture. We also seek to maintain a broadly diversified loan portfolio across geographies, customers, products and industries. Our lending policies do not provide for any loans that are highly speculative, subprime, or that have high loan-to-value ratios. These components, together with active credit management, are the foundation of our credit culture, which we believe is critical to enhancing the long-term value of our organization to our customers, employees, shareholders and communities.
Credit Concentrations. In connection with the management of our credit portfolio, we actively manage the composition of our loan portfolio, including credit concentrations. Our loan approval policies establish concentration limits with respect to industry and loan product type to ensure portfolio diversification, which are reviewed at least annually. The CRE concentration limits include sub-limits by type of property and geographic market, which are reviewed semi-annually. Country limits for loans to foreign borrowers are also assessed semi-annually. In general, all concentration levels are monitored on a monthly basis.
Loan Approval Process. We seek to achieve an appropriate balance between prudent and disciplined underwriting and flexibility in our decision-making and responsiveness to our customers. As of December 31, 2020, the Bank had a legal lending limit of approximately $136.1 million for unsecured loans, and its “in-house” single obligor lending limit was $35.0 million for CRE loans, representing 25.7% of our legal lending limit and $30.0 million for all other loans, representing 22.1% of our legal lending limit as of such date. Our credit approval policies provide the highest lending authority to our credit committee, as well as various levels of officer and senior management lending authority for new credits and renewals, which are based on position, capability and experience. These limits are reviewed periodically by the Bank’s board of directors. We believe that our credit approval process provides for thorough underwriting and sound and efficient decision making.
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Credit Risk Management. We use what we believe is a comprehensive methodology to monitor credit quality and prudently manage credit concentrations within our loan portfolio. Our underwriting policies and practices govern the risk profile and credit and geographic concentration of our loan portfolio. We also have what we believe to be a comprehensive methodology to monitor these credit quality standards, including a risk classification system that identifies possible problem loans based on risk characteristics by loan type as well as the early identification of deterioration at the individual loan level.
Credit risk management involves a collective effort among our Relationship Managers and credit underwriting, credit administration, credit risk and collections personnel. We generally conduct weekly credit committee meetings to approve loans at or above $10 million (loans for customers with an aggregate exposure equal to or above $10 million are also considered by the credit committee) and review any other credit related matter. Once a month, the asset quality trends and delinquencies are also reviewed by the credit committee and reports are elevated to senior management and the board of directors. Our policies require rapid notification of delinquency and prompt initiation of collection actions. Relationship Managers, credit administration personnel and senior management proactively support collection activities. Our evaluation and compensation program for our Relationship Managers includes asset quality goals, such as the percentage of past due loans and charge-offs to total loans in the officer’s portfolio, that we believe motivate the Relationship Managers to focus on the origination and maintenance of high quality credits consistent with our strategic focus on asset quality.
Deposits
Our deposits serve as the primary funding source for lending, investing and other general banking purposes. We provide a full range of deposit products and services, including a variety of checking and savings accounts, certificates of deposit, money market accounts, debit cards, remote deposit capture, online banking, mobile banking, and direct deposit services. We also offer business accounts and cash management services, including business checking and savings accounts and treasury management services for our commercial clients. We solicit deposits through our relationship-driven team of dedicated and accessible bankers, through community-focused marketing and, increasingly, through our dedicated national online channel. We also seek to cross-sell deposit and wealth management products and services at loan origination, and loans to our depository and other customers. Our deposits are fully-insured by the FDIC, subject to applicable limits. See “-Supervision and Regulation.”
We utilize brokered deposits. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, we had brokered deposits of $634.5 million and $682.4 million, 11.1% and 11.9% of our total deposits at those dates, respectively.
Following the Spin-off, we have sought to continue to increase our share of domestic deposits by continuing our banking center expansion and reconfiguration plans and focusing on improved efficiency and customer satisfaction.
Investment, Advisory and Trust Services
We offer a wide variety of trust and estate planning products and services catering to high net worth customers, our trust and estate planning products include simple and complex trusts, private foundations, personal investment companies and escrow accounts. Until March 31, 2021, these products and services will be offered through Amerant Trust and the Cayman Bank. Effective April 1st, 2021, Amerant Trust will be merged into the Bank, see “Amerant Trust Merger” above, and all trust products and services offered by Amerant Trust will now be directly offered by the Bank. Upon completion of the merger, Amerant Trust’s wholly-owned subsidiary, CTC Management Services, LLC, will become a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Bank and will continue to provide corporate and ancillary administrative services for fiduciary relationships.
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The Cayman Bank is a bank and trust company domiciled in George Town, Grand Cayman. The Cayman Bank operates under a Cayman Offshore Bank license, or B license, and a Trust license and is supervised by the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority, or CIMA. The Cayman Bank has no staff and its fiduciary services and general administration are provided by the staff of Amerant Trust and the Bank, respectively, under separate agreements (upon completion of the merger of Amerant Trust into the Bank, all fiduciary services and general administration services to the Cayman Bank will be provided by staff of the Bank). Approximately 50% of our trust relationships, including those of many of our important foreign customers, employ Cayman Islands trusts and are domiciled in the Cayman Bank. The OCC periodically examines the Bank and Amerant Trust and reviews the fiduciary relationships and transactions that Amerant Trust and the Bank manage for the Cayman Bank. The Cayman Bank serves a number of our trust and wealth management customers, and develops high net worth international customer relationships with offshore trust and estate planning services.
We also offer brokerage and investment advisory services in global capital markets through Amerant Investments, which is a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”), the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (“SIPC”) and a registered investment adviser with the SEC. Amerant Investments acts as an introducing broker-dealer through Pershing (a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Bank of New York Mellon) to obtain clearing, custody and other ancillary services. Amerant Investments offers a wide range of products, including mutual funds, exchange-traded funds, equity securities, fixed income securities, structured products, discretionary portfolio management, margin lending and online equities trading. Amerant Investments has distribution agreements with many major U.S. and international asset managers, as well as with some focused boutique providers. Amerant Investments provides its services to the Bank’s U.S. domestic and international customers. The Bank’s retail customers are offered non-FDIC insured investment products and services exclusively through Amerant Investments.
Other Products and Services
We offer banking products and services that we believe are attractively priced with a focus on customer convenience and accessibility. We offer a full suite of online banking services including access to account balances, online transfers, online bill payment and electronic delivery of customer statements, as well as automated teller machines (“ATMs”), and banking by mobile device, telephone and mail. In 2020, we launched numerous upgrades to our digital channels, these included the launch of a completely updated mobile app for consumer and small business customers with many new features and an updated look and feel. Based on the success of our 2019 launch of Zelle, we expanded this service to our small business customers in the first quarter of 2021. Also, the Bank expanded its online account opening capabilities to include transactional accounts for domestic and international retail customers.

Many of the services provided through our online platform are also available via our mobile application for smart devices. We also offer debit cards, night depositories, direct deposit, cashier’s checks, safe deposit boxes in various locations and letters of credit, as well as treasury management services, including wire transfer services, remote deposit capture and automated clearinghouse services. In addition, we offer other more complex financial products such as derivative instruments, including interest rate swap and cap contracts, to more sophisticated lending customers.
Investments
Our investment policy, set by our board of directors, requires that investment decisions be made based on, but not limited to, the following four principles: investment quality, liquidity requirements, interest-rate risk sensitivity and estimated return on investment. These characteristics are pillars of our investment decision-making process, which seeks to minimize exposure to risks while providing a reasonable yield and liquidity. Under the direction of the Asset-liability Management Committee (“ALCO”) and management, the Bank’s employees have delegated authority to invest in securities within specified policy and program guidelines.
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Information Technology Systems
We continue to make significant investments in our information technology systems for our deposit and lending operations and treasury management activities. We believe that these investments, including additional technology changes to implement our strategic plan, are essential to enhance our overall customer experience, to support our compliance, internal controls and efficiency initiatives, to expand our capabilities to offer new products, and to provide scale for future growth and acquisitions. We license our core data processing platform from a nationally recognized bank software vendor, which we believe provides us with essential functionalities to support our continued growth. Our internal network and the majority of our key applications are maintained or hosted in-house, while our focus on technology use to support our business strategies has led to increased digital investments. The scalability of our infrastructure is designed to support our expansion strategy. In addition, we leverage the capabilities of third-party service providers to augment the technical capabilities and expertise that is required for us to operate as an effective and efficient organization. In December 2019, we engaged Salesforce® for its Customer Relationship Management (“CRM”) system, which we successfully rolled out in 2020. This customizable platform enables the Company to integrate its marketing campaigns, onboarding processes and customer service. In December 2019, we also engaged nCino® for its loan origination platform and in 2020 completed its launched for our commercial banking customers and expect to launch it for our retail customers in the third quarter of 2021. nCino®’s loan origination platform will be fully integrated with Salesforce® CRM system and will enable customers, portfolio managers and underwriters to collaborate in real-time, potentially creating important efficiency gains n the loan origination process.
The Bank is actively engaged in identifying and managing cybersecurity risks. Protecting company data, non-public customer and employee data, and the systems that collect, process, and maintain this information is deemed critical. The Bank has an enterprise-wide Information Security Program, or Security Program, which is designed to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of customer non-public information and bank data. The Security Program was also designed to protect our operations and assets through a continuous and comprehensive cybersecurity detection, protection and prevention program. This program includes an information security governance structure and related policies and procedures, security controls, protocols governing data and systems, monitoring processes, and processes to ensure that the information security programs of third-party service providers are adequate. Our Security Program also continuously promotes cybersecurity awareness and culture across the organization.
The Bank also has a business continuity/disaster recovery plan, or BCP, which it actively manages to prepare for any business continuity challenges it may face. Our BCP provides for the resiliency and recovery of our operations and services to our customers. The plan is supported and complemented by a robust business continuity governance framework, a life safety program as well as an enterprise-wide annual exercise and training to keep the program and strategies effective, scalable and understood by all employees. We believe both the Security Program and BCP adhere to industry best practices and comply with the guidelines of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, or FFIEC, and are subject to periodic testing and independent audits.

Competition
The banking and financial services industry is highly competitive, and we compete with a wide range of lenders and other financial institutions within our markets, including local, regional, national and international commercial banks and credit unions. We also compete with mortgage companies, brokerage firms, trust service providers, consumer finance companies, mutual funds, securities firms, insurance companies, third-party payment processors, financial technology companies, or Fintechs, and other financial intermediaries on various of our products and services. Some of our competitors are not subject to the regulatory restrictions and the level of regulatory supervision applicable to us.
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Interest rates on loans and deposits, as well as prices on fee-based services, are typically significant competitive factors within the banking and financial services industry. Many of our competitors are much larger financial institutions that have greater financial resources than we do and compete aggressively for market share. These competitors attempt to gain market share through their financial product mix, pricing strategies and larger banking center networks. Other important competitive factors in our industry and markets include office locations and hours, quality of customer service, community reputation, continuity of personnel and services, capacity and willingness to extend credit, electronic delivery systems and ability to offer sophisticated banking products and services. While we seek to remain competitive with respect to fees charged, interest rates and pricing, we believe that our broad and sophisticated commercial banking product suite, our high-quality customer service culture, our positive reputation and long-standing community relationships enable us to compete successfully within our markets and enhance our ability to attract and retain customers.
Our Business Strategy
Our strategic plan is centered on building core commercial and personal relationships and focuses on deepening existing deposit and lending activities with current clients and increasing our customer base by enhancing the value proposition of our products and services by tailoring them to targeted segment needs.

Our strategic objectives include:
Increase domestic core deposits, focused on client acquisition and deepen relationships by bundling products to increment client stickiness, as well as gain a greater share of each customer’s business;
Enhance retail and commercial sales and servicing approaches with a consultative needs based and high touch perspective, using CRM tools;
Retain international deposits by adding new and revamped products bundles and improving the customer journey;
Expand and improve digital capabilities to increase the use of data analytics for the acquisition and onboarding of customers in high value business segments, as well as to enhance customer service journeys;

Amplify digital offering to attract core and time deposit accounts;
Focus on more granulated domestic lending opportunities, especially relationship-driven consumer, commercial, business and CRE loans, that may improve our returns at lower risks;
Improve cross-selling among all business lines, with a focus on attracting core deposits, fee income and loans, while building broader, more profitable customer relationships, including wealth management;
Increase non-interest fee income through our cash management products, interest rate swaps, private banking and wealth management services;
Buildup our scalable wealth management business with more domestic, as well as international customers;
Where possible, reconfigure banking centers to smaller banking centers of the future facilities, and relocate certain banking centers to better locations as existing leases expire;
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Upgrade the customer experience by:
improving online and mobile banking for retail and commercial customers;
transforming our banking centers to provide a seamless retail banking experience with staff focused on consultative customer service across the full range of products we offer with less emphasis on routine transactions;
streamlining and expediting product applications, transactions and customer processes compliant with regulatory requirements, such as data privacy and anti-money laundering; and
providing quicker decisions on customer requests while maintaining accountability and appropriate credit and compliance standards;
Increase the use of digital tools (CRM and a new loan origination system) to streamline the sales process and increase efficiency;
Reduce staffing generally, including as a result of more automated and better integrated systems;
Reduce and reorganize the space we occupy in our main office to increase the amount and attractiveness of space available for lease to third parties; and
Align responsibilities and incentives to achieve these goals.
Human Capital Management
The Company’s key human capital management objectives are to attract, retain and develop the highest quality talent. To support these objectives, the Company’s human resources programs are designed to continuously develop talent; reward and support employees through competitive pay and benefits; enhance the Company’s culture through efforts aimed at making the workplace more engaging and inclusive; and engage employees as brand ambassadors of our products and experiences.
Our corporate culture and core values (focus on the customer, innovative and forward thinking, sound financial management, doing what is right, collaborative thinking, developing our people and strengthening our communities) reflect our commitments to our customers, investors, employees, and the communities in which we do business. These values serve as guiding principles to provide a safe and positive work environment for our employees and delivering on our goals to our customers, investors, stakeholders and communities we serve. We believe we have a strong workforce, with a good mix of professional credentials, experience, tenure and diversity, that coupled with their commitment to uncompromising values, provide the foundation for our Company’s success.
The Company’s Human Capital Management includes the following areas of focus:
Talent
Attracting, developing, and retaining the best talent with the right skills is central to our long-term strategy to drive our success.
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Our workforce is managed in alignment with business needs. Management believes it has adequate human capital to operate its business successfully. The Company and its subsidiaries had 714 full-time equivalent employees, or FTEs, at the end of 2020. Approximately 91% of our employees are in Florida, 7% in Texas and 1% in New York. Our workforce was 48% male and 52% female at the close of 2020, and women represented 40% of Amerant’s middle management leadership (as classified by Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Category “Middle, First Management Officials”). The ethnicity of our workforce was 85% Hispanic, 8% White, 3% Black, 2% Asian, and 2% other.
We believe the combination of competitive compensation and career growth and development opportunities have helped increase employee tenure and reduce voluntary turnover. The average tenure of our workforce is approximately 10 years. Voluntary workforce turnover (rolling 12-month attrition) was 14% at the end of 2020 (excluding a voluntary early retirement plan implemented by the Company in the fourth quarter of 2020).
In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on how we managed our human capital. A significant portion of our workforce worked remotely, and we instituted safety protocols and procedures for employees who continued to work on site. Due to the current climate, including COVID-19 impacts, and the changing environment in which we are operating, the Company has generated efficiencies in its staffing, including limiting hiring to critical business roles, and those that advance our digital transformation strategy. Consequent to the environment, we relied heavily on using contingent workforce, accounting for approximately 25% of our 2020 new hires. Our talent acquisition team uses internal and external resources to recruit highly skilled and talented workers, and we encourage and reward employee referrals for open positions. Our emphasis on employee retention, employee evaluations and career progression contributed to a promotion rate of approximately 7% in 2020. We recruit the best people for the job without regard to gender, ethnicity or other protected traits and it is our policy to comply fully with all federal and state laws relating to discrimination in the workplace.
Additionally, within the Company’s effort to streamline operations and better align its operating structure with its business activities, reorganization efforts adopted in 2020 led to a reduction in force of 62 employees.
Learning and Development
Our employees are inspired to achieve their full potential through learning and development opportunities, recognition, and motivation. We invest in creating opportunities to help employees grow and build their careers, through a multitude of training and development programs. These include online instructor-led and on-the-job learning assignments. Our learning and development strategy is aligned with the global Association for Talent Development and our business strategy. Understanding that all employees learn differently, we offer a variety of learning options including traditional classroom learning, virtual learning, any time learning, mobile learning, and social collaboration.
In 2020, amidst a pandemic, we continued to emphasize employee development and training. To empower employees to reach their full potential, we provided a diverse range of learning programs, opportunities, and resources. We use an online talent development tool that provides employees with a variety of learning options, including access to instructor-led classroom and virtual courses, on-demand recorded sessions and self-paced web-based courses. We also introduced a partnership with LinkedIn Learning and increased the learning options for our employees, which in 2020 contributed an additional 491 hours of learning with 1,309 courses viewed. We also leveraged LinkedIn Learning to launch a curriculum for our leaders that focused on the right skills to lead through the pandemic including leading during great times of change, and managing and monitoring teams and performance at a distance.
The primary focus for learning in 2020 included supporting the organization in the launch of our new digital tools, Salesforce and nCino, supporting leaders in managing performance during the pandemic, and continuing with our efforts in the areas of sales, customer service and digital transformation. We delivered approximately 24,000 learning hours and invested an average of $1,147 dollars per employee in all our learning programs.
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We also continue offering higher-education tuition costs reimbursement programs which are aimed at helping our employees put their career goals within reach, and provide them with access to a wide variety of degrees and certificates.
Employee engagement
To assess and improve employee retention and engagement, the Company regularly conducts anonymous surveys to seek feedback from our employees on a variety of topics, including but not limited to, confidence in company leadership, competitiveness of our compensation and benefits package, career growth opportunities and improvements on how we could make our company an employer of choice. In 2020, we established a successful partnership with Qualtrics as our leading survey provider. This relationship allowed us to:
Immediately access survey results for faster action planning.
Create ad hoc surveys and administer pulse surveys mid-year.
Provide managers with direct access to their results using a reporting dashboard allowing them to take ownership and action on their results.
Have seamless integration with our customer experience data.

We achieved a 89% participation rate in our 2020 employee engagement survey while the engagement score remained stable at 79%. For two consecutive years, Amerant managed to sustain high engagement levels even under the difficult pandemic scenario. This engagement level exceeds the 72% Qualtrics Global Average.
The Company closely monitors the implementation of these surveys and results are shared with our employees and reviewed by senior leadership, who analyze areas of progress or deterioration and prioritize actions and activities to drive meaningful improvements in employee engagement. Management believes that the Company's employee relations are favorable.
In 2020, the Company began sponsoring Team ECHO (Empowerment, Commitment and Harmonious Opportunities), a group of employees that support and promote certain mutual objectives of both the employees and the Company. Team ECHO is charged with developing specific actions aimed at improving the employee experience on several key strategic priorities including:
Increasing the levels of cross functional collaboration,
Generating awareness and sharing knowledge of our products and services, and
Improving work processes that impact the employee and customer experience.

Health and Safety
Consistent with our operating principles, the health and safety of our employees is of top priority. Hazards in the workplace are actively identified and management tracks incidents so remedial actions can be taken to improve workplace safety. The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored for us the importance of keeping our employees safe and healthy. In response to the pandemic, the Company has taken actions aligned with the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to protect its workforce so they can more safely and effectively perform their work.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company implemented several protocols to ensure the health and safety of our employees. The below actions have been implemented during the pandemic:
Enabling remote work;
Requiring masks to be worn in all locations;
Encouraging any employee who is sick to stay home;
Providing regular communication to employees regarding health and safety protocols, temperature screening, reporting process, as well as giving guidance on staying safe in their personal lives;
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Implementing hands free, contact less, temperature kiosks to take employee temperature upon arrival to the office;
Increasing cleaning protocols and providing additional cleaning supplies across all locations;
Providing personal protective equipment to all branch personnel;
Implementing protocols to address actual and suspected COVID-19 cases and potential exposures;
Establishing new social distancing procedures for employees who need to be onsite;
Encouraging employees not to travel and, if needed, instructing them on the process to follow upon their return.

In addition, the Company launched wellness activities in response to COVID-19, including the “Get Moving with Amerant” program, a series of activities aimed at helping employees manage stress, health, and overall wellness.
Diversity and Inclusion
Our diversity and inclusion objectives are to build teams that reflect the life experiences of our employees, while employing and supporting a diverse array of voices in our corporate environment. Over 50% of our workforce is female and a great majority of our workforce self-identifies as Hispanic or Latino. Our diversity and inclusion principles are also reflected in our employee training, particularly with respect to our policies against harassment and the elimination of bias in the workplace. For over 20 years we have championed targeted development programs for underrepresented talent in partnership with the Center for Financial Training, a local chapter of the American Bankers Association.
Total Rewards
As part of our compensation philosophy, we believe in a competitive, total rewards program aligned with our business objectives and the interests of our stakeholders. We remain committed to delivering a compensation program with the fundamental principles of fairness, transparency, efficiency, and compliance with laws and regulations. Based on specific job position and market conditions, our total rewards program combines fixed and variable compensation: base salary, short-term incentive, equity-based long-term incentive, and a broad range of benefits. This compensation approach plays a significant role in our ability to attract, retain and motivate the quality of talent necessary to achieve our strategic business goals and drive sustained performance. Our compensation model engages employees to contribute towards the achievement of shared corporate objectives, while differentiating pay on performance based on individual contributions.
Wellness
The Company takes pride in providing excellent health and wellness benefits to our employees and their families. The benefits package offered includes comprehensive medical, dental, vision, as well as supplemental short and long-term life and out of pocket costs insurance. Along with these benefits we also offer Flexible Spending Accounts (FSA) and Health Savings Accounts (HSA).
Medical Plans
Our nationwide healthcare plans allow full time and part time employees to select from multiple health plan options. The company provides competitive medical premiums, including a wellness premium discount when employees complete preventive requirements and completion of a health risk assessment. The Company contributes up to 91% towards the medical premium depending on the tier chosen and whether wellness requirements have been completed. The Company also contributes $500 towards the HSA accounts when the employee has the high deductible medical plan for the employee only coverage and $1000 for all other tiers on the high deductible plans. In 2020, the Company started offering coverage of COVID-19 testing under all Company medical plans at no cost to the employees and their dependents.

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Dental, Vision and Legal Plans
Full time and part time employees are eligible to participate in our dental, vision and legal plan offerings. The Company contributes up to 100% depending on the plan and chosen tier, and provides access to numerous providers across the country. Employees can also choose to purchase out of pocket insurance policies providing income protection and cash for services with five different plans from accident, short term disability, cancer, hospital indemnity, and critical care. The Legal Plan is an attorney owned and operated legal plan offering comprehensive legal assistance, advise and discounted representation on all types of legal services.
Life, AD&D and Disability
Group Basic Life and AD&D Insurance is offered to all full time and part time employees, at two times their annual salary with a maximum coverage of $300,000. Employees may choose to purchase additional life insurance up to a specified limit. Full time and part time employees also benefit from free Short-Term Disability insurance.
Retirement Plans
In addition to health insurance benefits, the Company also offers to all employees a tax-qualified retirement contribution plan with 100% matching contribution up to 5% of a participant’s eligible compensation, and a non-tax qualified retirement contribution plan to certain eligible high-compensated employees. Our total benefits package supports our employee’s well-being to achieve a healthy and financial lifestyle goal. The Company also offers a post-tax ROTH retirement plan complementary to the tax-qualified retirement contribution plan, up to 2% after-tax contribution.
Other Subsidiaries
Intermediate Holding Company
The Company owns the Bank through our wholly-owned, intermediate holding company, Amerant Florida Bancorp Inc., or Amerant Florida. Amerant Florida is the obligor under the $64.2 million aggregate principal amount of junior subordinated debentures related to our outstanding trust preferred securities at December 31, 2020, and the unconditional guarantor of the $60 million Senior Debt we issued in 2020. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, Amerant Florida had cash and cash equivalents of $16.6 million and $48.9 million, respectively, on a stand-alone basis. See — “Capital Resources and Liquidity Management” for details.
The REIT
Through the Bank’s subsidiary, CB Reit Holding Corporation, or REIT Hold Co., we maintain a real estate investment trust, CB Real Estate Investments, or REIT, which is taxed as a real estate investment trust. The REIT holds various of the Bank’s real estate loans, and allows the Bank to better manage the Bank’s real estate portfolio.
Dividend Restrictions
As a bank holding company, our ability to pay dividends is affected by the policies and enforcement powers of the Federal Reserve. In addition, because we are a bank holding company, we are dependent upon the payment of dividends by the Bank as our principal source of funds to pay dividends in the future, if any, and to make other payments. The Bank is also subject to various legal, regulatory and other restrictions on its ability to pay dividends and make other distributions and payments to us. For further information, see “Supervision and Regulation-Payment of Dividends.”

EMERGING GROWTH COMPANY STATUS
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We are an “emerging growth company,” or “EGC”, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”). As such, we are eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.

In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an EGC can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), for complying with new or revised accounting standards. In other words, an EGC can delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We intend to take advantage of the benefits of this extended transition period, for as long as it is available. We will remain an EGC until the earlier of (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the date of the first sale of our common equity securities pursuant to an effective registration statement under the Securities Act and (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, (2) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter, and (3) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period. References herein to “emerging growth company” have the meaning provided in the JOBS Act.
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SUPERVISION AND REGULATION
We and the Bank are extensively regulated under U.S. Federal and state laws applicable to financial institutions. Our supervision, regulation and examination are primarily intended to protect depositors, and are not intended to protect our shareholders. Any change in applicable law or regulation may have a material effect on our business. The following discussion is qualified in its entirety by reference to the particular statutory and regulatory provisions referred to below.

Bank Holding Company and Bank Regulation

The Company is a bank holding company, subject to supervision, regulation and examination by the Federal Reserve under the Bank Holding Company Act, or “BHC Act.” Bank holding companies generally are limited to the business of banking, managing or controlling banks, and certain related activities. We are required to file periodic reports and other information with the Federal Reserve, which examines us and our non-bank subsidiaries.

Bank holding companies that meet certain criteria may elect to become “Financial Holding Companies.” Financial Holding Companies and their subsidiaries are permitted to acquire or engage in activities such as insurance underwriting, securities underwriting, travel agency activities, broad insurance agency activities, merchant banking and other activities that the Federal Reserve determines to be financial in nature or complementary thereto. Financial holding companies continue to be subject to Federal Reserve supervision, regulation and examination. The Company has not elected to become a financial holding company, but it may elect to do so in the future.

The Bank is a national bank subject to regulation and regular examinations by the OCC, and is a member of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. OCC regulations govern permissible activities, capital requirements, branching, dividend limitations, investments, loans and other matters.

The Bank is a member of the FDIC’s DIF and its deposits are insured by the FDIC to the fullest extent permitted by law. As a result, it is subject to regulation and deposit insurance assessments by the FDIC. Under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), the Bank also is subject to regulations issued by the CFPB, with respect to consumer financial services and products, but is not subject to direct CFPB supervision or examination because the Bank has less than $10 billion of assets. See “-FDIC Insurance Assessments”.

The Bank maintains loan production offices, or “LPOs,” in New York City and Dallas, Texas. LPOs may only engage in certain functions on behalf of the Bank, such as soliciting loans (including assembling credit information, property inspections and appraisals, securing title information, preparing loan applications, loan servicing), and acting as a liaison with customers of the Bank. Loans and credit extensions cannot be approved by an LPO. Our LPO offices also solicit deposits, provide information about deposit products, and assist customers in completing deposit account opening documents. The LPOs are not “branches” under applicable OCC regulations and cannot engage in general banking transactions, deposit taking and withdrawals, or lending money. The LPOs are subject to supervision and examination by the OCC.

Changes in Control

The BHC Act requires prior Federal Reserve approval for, among other things, the acquisition by a bank holding company of direct or indirect ownership or “control” of more than 5% of the voting shares or substantially all the assets of any bank, or for a merger or consolidation of a bank holding company with another bank holding company. With certain exceptions, the BHC Act prohibits a bank holding company from acquiring direct or indirect ownership or “control” of voting shares of any company that is not a bank or bank holding company and from engaging directly or indirectly in any activity other than banking or managing or controlling banks or performing services for its authorized subsidiaries. However, a bank holding company may engage in or acquire an interest in a company that engages in activities that the Federal Reserve has determined to be so closely related to banking, or managing or controlling banks, as to be a proper incident thereto.
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The BHC Act permits acquisitions of banks by bank holding companies, subject to various restrictions, including that the acquirer is “well capitalized” and “well managed”. A national bank located in Florida, with the prior approval of the OCC, may acquire and operate one or more banks in other states. In addition, national banks located in Florida may enter into a merger transaction with one or more out-of-state banks, and an out-of-state bank resulting from such transaction may continue to operate the acquired branches in Florida. Under the Bank Merger Act, prior OCC approval is required for a national bank to merge or consolidate with, or purchase the assets or assume the deposits of, another bank. In reviewing applications to approve mergers and other acquisition transactions, the OCC is required to consider factors similar to the Federal Reserve under the BHC Act, including the applicant’s financial and managerial resources, competitive effects and public benefits of the transaction, the applicant’s performance in meeting community needs, and the effectiveness of the entities in combating money laundering activities. The Dodd-Frank Act permits banks, including national banks, to branch anywhere in the United States.

Transactions with Affiliates and Insiders

Pursuant to Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, and Federal Reserve Regulation W thereunder, the Bank is subject to restrictions that limit certain types of transactions between the Bank and its non-bank affiliates. In general, U.S. banks are subject to quantitative and qualitative limits on extensions of credit, purchases of assets and certain other transactions involving its non-bank affiliates. Additionally, transactions between U.S. banks and their non-bank affiliates are required to be on arm’s length terms and must be consistent with standards of safety and soundness.

Source of Strength

Federal Reserve policy and the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, as amended by the Dodd-Frank Act, require a bank holding company to act as a source of financial strength to its FDIC-insured bank subsidiaries and to commit resources to support these subsidiaries. In furtherance of this policy, the Federal Reserve may require a bank holding company to terminate any activity or relinquish control of a non-bank subsidiary (other than a non-bank subsidiary of a bank) upon the Federal Reserve’s determination that such activity or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial soundness or stability of any subsidiary depository institution. Further, federal bank regulatory authorities have additional discretion to require a financial holding company to divest itself of any bank or non-bank subsidiary if the agency determines that divestiture may aid the depository institution’s financial condition.

Safe and Sound Banking Practices

Bank holding companies and their non-banking subsidiaries are prohibited from engaging in activities that represent unsafe and unsound banking practices or that constitute a violation of law or regulations. Under certain conditions the Federal Reserve may conclude that certain actions of a bank holding company, such as a payment of a cash dividend, would constitute an unsafe and unsound banking practice. The Federal Reserve also has the authority to regulate the debt of bank holding companies, including the authority to impose interest rate ceilings and reserve requirements on such debt. Under certain circumstances, the Federal Reserve may require a bank holding company to file written notice and obtain its approval prior to purchasing or redeeming its equity securities.

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Privacy

A variety of federal and state privacy laws govern the collection, safeguarding, sharing and use of customer information, and require that financial institutions have policies regarding information privacy and security. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, or the “GLB Act,” and related regulations require banks and their affiliated companies to adopt and disclose privacy policies, including policies regarding the sharing of personal information with third-parties. Some state laws also protect the privacy of information of state residents and require adequate security of such data, and certain state laws may, in some circumstances, require us to notify affected individuals of security breaches of computer databases that contain their personal information. These laws may also require us to notify law enforcement, regulators or consumer reporting agencies in the event of a data breach, as well as businesses and governmental agencies that own data.

Reserves

The Federal Reserve requires all depository institutions to maintain reserves against transaction accounts (noninterest-bearing and NOW checking accounts). The balances maintained to meet the reserve requirements imposed by the Federal Reserve may be used to satisfy liquidity requirements. An institution may borrow from the Federal Reserve Bank “discount window” as a secondary source of funds, provided that the institution meets the Federal Reserve Bank’s credit standards.

Community Reinvestment Act and Consumer Laws

The Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”) and its corresponding regulations are intended to encourage banks to help meet the credit needs of the communities they serve, including low and moderate income neighborhoods, consistent with safe and sound banking practices. These regulations provide for regulatory assessment of a bank’s record in meeting the credit needs of its market area. Federal banking agencies are required to publicly disclose each bank’s rating under the CRA. The OCC considers a bank’s CRA rating when the bank submits an application to establish bank branches, merge with another bank, or acquire the assets and assume the liabilities of another bank. In the case of a financial holding company, the Federal Reserve reviews the CRA performance record of all banks involved in a merger or acquisition in connection with the application to acquire ownership or control of shares or assets of a bank or to merge with another bank or bank holding company. An unsatisfactory record can substantially delay or block the transaction. The Bank received an “outstanding” rating since 2000, including its most recent CRA evaluation in June 2020.

The Bank is also subject to, among other things, other federal and state consumer laws and regulations that are designed to protect consumers in transactions with banks. While the list set forth below is not exhaustive, these laws and regulations include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (“ECOA”), the Fair Housing Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Funds Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act, the Mortgage Disclosure Improvement Act, and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, among others. These laws and regulations mandate certain disclosure requirements and regulate the manner in which financial institutions must deal with clients when taking deposits or making loans to such clients. The Bank must comply with the applicable provisions of these consumer protection laws and regulations as part of its ongoing client relations.

The CFPB has the authority, previously exercised by the federal bank regulators, to adopt regulations and enforce these federal consumer laws. Although the CFPB does not examine or supervise banks with less than $10 billion in assets, it exercises broad authority in making rules and providing guidance that affects bank regulation in these areas and the scope of bank regulators’ consumer regulation, examination and enforcement. Banks of all sizes are affected by the CFPB’s regulations, and the precedents set by CFPB enforcement actions and interpretations. The CFPB has focused on various practices to date, including revising mortgage lending rules, overdrafts, credit card add-on products, indirect automobile lending, student lending, and payday and similar short-term lending, and
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has a broad mandate to regulate consumer financial products and services, whether or not offered by banks or their affiliates.

Anti-money Laundering

The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (the “USA Patriot Act”), provides the federal government with additional powers to address terrorist threats through enhanced domestic security measures, expanded surveillance powers, increased information sharing and broadened anti-money laundering requirements. By way of amendments to the Bank Secrecy Act, or “BSA,” the USA Patriot Act puts in place measures intended to encourage information sharing among bank regulatory and law enforcement agencies. In addition, certain provisions of the USA Patriot Act impose affirmative obligations on a broad range of financial institutions.

The USA Patriot and BSA Acts and the related federal regulations require banks to establish anti-money laundering programs that include policies, procedures and controls to detect, prevent and report money laundering and terrorist financing and to verify the identity of their customers and of beneficial owners of their legal entity customers.

In addition, South Florida has been designated as a “High Intensity Financial Crime Area,” or HIFCA, by the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (“FinCEN”) and a “High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area,” or HIDTA, by the Office of National Drug Control Policy. The HIFCA program is intended to concentrate law enforcement efforts to combat money laundering efforts in higher-risk areas. The HIDTA designation makes it possible for local agencies to benefit from ongoing HIDTA-coordinated program initiatives that are working to reduce drug use.

There is also increased scrutiny of compliance with the sanctions programs and rules administered and enforced by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of Treasury, or “OFAC.” OFAC administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions against targeted foreign countries and regimes, terrorists, international narcotics traffickers, those engaged in activities related to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and other threats to the national security, foreign policy or economy of the United States, based on U.S. foreign policy and national security goals. OFAC issues regulations that restrict transactions by U.S. persons or entities (including banks), located in the U.S. or abroad, with certain foreign countries, their nationals or “specially designated nationals.” OFAC regularly publishes listings of foreign countries and designated nationals that are prohibited from conducting business with any U.S. entity or individual. While OFAC is responsible for promulgating, developing and administering these controls and sanctions, all of the bank regulatory agencies are responsible for ensuring that financial institutions comply with these regulations.

Payment of Dividends
We and the Bank are subject to various general regulatory policies and requirements relating to the payment of dividends, including requirements to maintain capital above regulatory minimums. The Federal Reserve and the OCC are authorized to determine when the payment of dividends by the Company and the Bank, respectively, would be an unsafe or unsound practice, and may prohibit such dividends. The Federal Reserve has indicated that paying dividends that deplete a bank holding company’s capital base to an inadequate level would be an unsafe and unsound banking practice. The Federal Reserve has indicated that depository institutions and their holding companies should generally pay dividends only out of current year’s operating earnings.

In 2019, the Basel III Capital Rules were fully phased-in and further limit our permissible dividends, stock repurchases and discretionary bonuses, including those of the Bank, unless we and the Bank continue to meet the fully phased-in capital conservation buffer requirement. The Company and the Bank exceeded the capital conservation requirement at year end 2020. See “Basel III Capital Rules.”




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Capital

We and the Bank are required under federal law to maintain certain minimum capital levels based on ratios of capital to assets and capital to risk-weighted assets. The required capital ratios are minimums, and the Federal Reserve and OCC may determine that a banking organization, based on its size, complexity or risk profile, must maintain a higher level of capital in order to operate in a safe and sound manner. Risks such as concentration of credit risks and the risk arising from non-traditional activities, as well as the institution’s exposure to a decline in the economic value of its capital due to changes in interest rates, and an institution’s ability to manage those risks are important factors that are to be taken into account by the federal banking agencies in assessing an institution’s overall capital adequacy. The following is a brief description of the relevant provisions of these capital rules and their potential impact on our and the Bank's capital levels. The relevant capital measures are the total risk-based capital ratio, Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio, common equity Tier 1 or “CET1” capital ratio, as well as, the leverage capital ratio.

The Federal Reserve has risk-based capital rules for bank holding companies and the OCC has similar rules for national banks. These rules required at year end 2020 a minimum ratio of capital to risk-weighted assets (including certain off-balance sheet activities, such as standby letters of credit) and capital conservation buffer of 10.50%. Tier 1 capital includes common equity and related retained earnings and a limited amount of qualifying preferred stock, less goodwill and certain core deposit intangibles. Voting common equity must be the predominant form of capital. Tier 2 capital consists of non-qualifying preferred stock, qualifying subordinated, perpetual, and/or mandatory convertible debt, term subordinated debt and intermediate term preferred stock, up to 45% of pre-tax unrealized holding gains on available for sale equity securities with readily determinable market values that are prudently valued, and a loan loss allowance up to 1.25% of its standardized total risk-weighted assets, excluding the allowance. We collectively refer to Tier 1 capital and Tier 2 capital as Total risk-based capital.

In addition, the Federal Reserve has established minimum leverage ratio guidelines for bank holding companies, which provide for a minimum leverage ratio of Tier 1 capital to adjusted average quarterly assets (“leverage ratio”) equal to 4%. However, regulators expect bank holding companies and banks to operate with leverage ratios above the minimum. The guidelines also provide that institutions experiencing internal growth or making acquisitions will be expected to maintain strong capital positions substantially above the minimum supervisory levels without significant reliance on intangible assets. The Federal Reserve has indicated that it will continue to consider a “tangible Tier 1 leverage ratio” (deducting all intangibles) in evaluating proposals for expansion or new activity. Higher capital may be required in individual cases and depending upon a bank holding company’s risk profile. All bank holding companies and banks are expected to hold capital commensurate with the level and nature of their risks, including the volume and severity of their problem loans. The level of Tier 1 capital to risk-adjusted assets is becoming more widely used by the bank regulators to measure capital adequacy. Neither the Federal Reserve nor the OCC has advised us of any specific minimum leverage ratio or tangible Tier 1 leverage ratio applicable to the Company or the Bank, respectively. Under Federal Reserve policies, bank holding companies are generally expected to operate with capital positions well above the minimum ratios. The Federal Reserve believes the risk-based ratios do not fully take into account the quality of capital and interest rate, liquidity, market and operational risks. Accordingly, supervisory assessments of capital adequacy may differ significantly from conclusions based solely on the level of an organization’s risk-based capital ratio.

Basel III Capital Rules

The Federal Reserve, the OCC and the other bank regulators adopted in June 2013 final capital rules, or the Basel III Capital Rules, for bank holding companies and banks implementing the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision’s “Basel III: A Global Regulatory Framework for more Resilient Banks and Banking Systems.” These new U.S. capital rules were generally fully phased-in on January 1, 2019.

In order to avoid certain restrictions on permissible dividends, stock repurchases and discretionary bonuses, a minimum “capital conservation buffer” of CET1 capital of at least 2.5% of total risk-weighted assets, is required. The capital conservation buffer is calculated as the lowest of: (i) the banking organization’s CET1 capital ratio
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minus 4.5%; (ii) the banking organization’s Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio minus 6.0%; or (iii) the banking organization’s total risk-based capital ratio minus 8.0%.

The capital elements and total capital under the Basel III Capital Rules are as follows:
Minimum CET14.50%
Capital Conservation Buffer2.50%
Total CET17.00%
Deductions from CET1100.00%
Minimum Tier 1 Capital6.00%
Minimum Tier 1 Capital plus conservation buffer
8.50%
Minimum Total Capital8.00%
Minimum Total Capital plus conservation buffer
10.50%
The Federal Reserve, the OCC, and the FDIC, published a final rule on July 22, 2019 (“ the Capital Simplifications Final Rule”) that simplifies existing regulatory capital rules for non-advanced approaches institutions, such as the Company. Non-advanced approaches institutions were permitted to implement the Capital Simplifications Final Rule as of its revised effective date in the quarter beginning January 1, 2020, or wait until the quarter beginning April 1, 2020. As of the date of implementation, the required deductions from regulatory capital CET1 elements for mortgage servicing assets (“MSAs”) and temporary difference deferred tax assets (“DTAs”) are only required to the extent these assets exceed 25% of CET1 capital elements, less any adjustments and deductions (the “CET1 Deduction Threshold”). MSAs and temporary difference DTAs that are not deducted from capital are assigned a 250% risk weight. Investments in the capital instruments of unconsolidated financial institutions are deducted from capital when these exceed the 25% CET1 Deduction Threshold. Minority interests in up to 10% of the parent banking organization’s CET1, Tier capital and total capital, after deductions and adjustments are permitted to be included in capital effective October 1, 2019. Also, effective October 1, 2019, the final rule made various technical amendments, including reconciling a difference in the capital rules and the bank holding company rules that permits the redemption of bank holding company common stock without prior Federal Reserve approval under the capital rules. Such redemptions remain subject to other requirements, including the BHC Act and Federal Reserve Regulation Y. The Company adopted these simplified capital rules in the first quarter of 2020 and had no material effect on the Company’s regulatory capital and ratios.

As of December 31, 2020, the Bank's CET1 ratio was 12.65% and its total risk-based capital ratio was 13.91%. As a result, the Bank is currently classified as "well capitalized" for purposes of the OCC's prompt corrective action regulations.

Prompt Corrective Action Rules

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991, or “FDICIA,” among other things, requires the federal bank regulators to take “prompt corrective action” regarding depository institutions that do not meet minimum capital requirements. FDICIA establishes five capital categories for insured deposit institutions: “well capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized” and “critically undercapitalized.” A depository institution’s capital category will depend upon how its capital levels compare to various relevant capital measures and certain other factors, as established by regulation. To qualify as a “well-capitalized” institution, a bank must have a leverage ratio of not less than 5%, a Tier 1 Common Equity ratio of not less than 6.5%, a Tier 1 Capital ratio of not less than 8%, and a total risk-based capital ratio of not less than 10%, and the bank must not be under any order or directive from the appropriate regulatory agency to meet and maintain a specific capital level.
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Under the regulations, the applicable agency can treat an institution as if it were in the next lower category if the agency determines (after notice and an opportunity for hearing) that the institution is in an unsafe or unsound condition or is engaging in an unsafe or unsound practice. The degree of regulatory scrutiny of a financial institution will increase, and the permissible activities of the institution will decrease, as it moves downward through the capital categories.

Immediately upon becoming undercapitalized, a depository institution becomes subject to the provisions of Section 38 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act which: (i) restrict payment of capital distributions and management fees; (ii) require that the appropriate federal banking agency monitor the condition of the institution and its efforts to restore its capital; (iii) require submission of a capital restoration plan; (iv) restrict the growth of the institution’s assets; and (v) require prior approval of certain expansion proposals. The appropriate federal banking agency for an undercapitalized institution also may take any number of discretionary supervisory actions if the agency determines that any of these actions is necessary to resolve the problems of the institution at the least possible long-term cost to the FDIC’s DIF.

In 2019, the federal banking regulators published final rules implementing a simplified measure of capital adequacy for certain banking organizations that have less than $10 billion in total consolidated assets. Under the final rules, which went into effect on January 1, 2020, depository institutions and depository institution holding companies that have less than $10 billion in total consolidated assets and meet other qualifying criteria, including a leverage ratio of greater than 9%, off-balance-sheet exposures of 25% or less of total consolidated assets and trading assets plus trading liabilities of 5% or less of total consolidated assets, are deemed “qualifying community banking organizations” and are eligible to opt into the “community bank leverage ratio framework.” A qualifying community banking organization that elects to use the community bank leverage ratio framework and that maintains a leverage ratio of greater than 9% is considered to have satisfied the generally applicable risk-based and leverage capital requirements under the Basel III Capital Rules and, if applicable, is considered to have met the “well capitalized” ratio requirements for purposes of its primary federal regulator’s prompt corrective action rules, discussed above. The final rules include a two-quarter grace period during which a qualifying community banking organization that temporarily fails to meet any of the qualifying criteria, including the greater-than-9% leverage capital ratio requirement, is generally still deemed “well capitalized” so long as the banking organization maintains a leverage capital ratio greater than 8%. A banking organization that fails to maintain a leverage capital ratio greater than 8% is not permitted to use the grace period and must comply with the generally applicable requirements under the Basel III Capital Rules and file the appropriate regulatory reports.

Pursuant to the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, or “CARES Act,” the federal banking agencies authorities adopted a final rule, effective November 9, 2020, that (i) reduced the minimum community bank leverage ratio to be deemed “well capitalized” from 9% to 8% through calendar year 2020, (ii) set the ratio at 8.5% for calendar year 2021, (iii) sets the ratio back at 9% for 2022 and thereafter, and (ii) gave community banks two-quarter grace period to satisfy the ratio if the ratio falls out of compliance by no more than 1%. As of March 31, 2020, the Company determined to opt out of adopting the new “community bank leverage ratio” given that the perceived benefits provided by the new regulation did not exceed the potential costs considering the Company’s current and projected size and operations.

The prompt corrective action rules have been conformed by the Basel III Capital Rules, as discussed above. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis-Regulatory Capital Requirements for details on the Company’s and the Banks’ regulatory capital.”

Enforcement Policies and Actions

The Federal Reserve and the OCC monitor compliance with laws and regulations. The CFPB monitors compliance with laws and regulations applicable to consumer financial products and services. Violations of laws and regulations, or other unsafe and unsound practices, may result in these agencies imposing fines, penalties and/or restitution, cease and desist orders, or taking other formal or informal enforcement actions. Under certain
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circumstances, these agencies may enforce similar remedies directly against officers, directors, employees and others participating in the affairs of a bank or bank holding company, including fines, penalties and the recovery, or claw-back, of compensation.

FDIC Insurance Assessments

Deposits at U.S. domiciled banks are insured by the FDIC, subject to limits and conditions of applicable laws and regulations. Our deposit accounts are insured by the Deposit Insurance Fund, or “DIF,” generally up to a maximum of  $250,000 per separately insured depositor. In order to fund the DIF, all insured depository institutions are required to pay quarterly assessments to the FDIC that are based on an institutions assignment to one of four risk categories based on supervisory evaluations, regulatory capital levels and certain other factors. The FDIC has the discretion to adjust an institution’s risk rating and may terminate its insurance of deposits upon a finding that the institution engaged or is engaging in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by the FDIC or written agreement entered into with the FDIC. The FDIC may also prohibit any FDIC-insured institution from engaging in any activity it determines to pose a serious risk to the DIF.

Lending Practices

The federal bank regulators released guidance in 2006 on “Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate Lending” (the “CRE Guidance”). The CRE Guidance requires that appropriate processes be in place to identify, monitor and control risks associated with real estate lending concentrations. This could include enhanced strategic planning, CRE underwriting policies, risk management, internal controls, portfolio stress testing and risk exposure limits as well as appropriately designed compensation and incentive programs. Higher allowances for loan losses and capital levels may also be required. The guidance provides the following criteria regulatory agencies will use as indicators to identify institutions that may be exposed to CRE concentration risk: (i) experienced rapid growth in CRE lending ; (ii) notable exposure to a specific type of CRE; (iii) Total reported loans for construction, land development, and other land of 100% or more of a bank’s total risk-based capital; or (iv) Total reported loans secured by multifamily and nonfarm nonresidential properties and loans for construction, land development, and other land are 300% or more of a bank’s total risk-based capital and the outstanding balance of the institutions CRE portfolio has increased by 50% or more in the prior 36 months. We have always had significant exposures to loans secured by CRE due to the nature of our markets. We believe our long term experience in CRE lending, underwriting policies, internal controls, and other policies currently in place, as well as our loan and credit monitoring and administration procedures, are generally appropriate to manage our concentrations as required under the guidance.

London Inter-Bank Offered Rate (LIBOR)

We have contracts, including loan agreements, which are currently indexed to LIBOR. The use of LIBOR as a reference rate in the banking industry is beginning to decline. In 2014, a committee of private-market derivative participants and their regulators, the Alternative Reference Rate Committee, or “ARRC,” was convened by the Federal Reserve to identify an alternative reference interest rate to replace LIBOR. In June 2017, the ARRC announced the Secured Overnight Funding Rate, or “SOFR,” a broad measure of the cost of borrowing cash overnight collateralized by Treasury securities, as its preferred alternative to LIBOR. In July 2017, the Chief Executive of the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced its intention to stop persuading or compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR to the administrator of LIBOR after 2021. In April 2018, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York began to publish SOFR rates on a daily basis. The International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc. provided guidance on fallback contract language related to derivative transactions in late 2019. In 2019, the Asset/Liability Management Committee appointed a team charged with the responsibility of monitoring developments related to the proposed alternative reference interest rates to replace LIBOR and guide the organization through the potential discontinuation of LIBOR. In 2020, the Company launched the LIBOR cessation project to identify and quantify LIBOR exposure in all product categories and lines of business, both on- and off-balance-sheet. In addition, the project team assessed all third-party-provided products, services, and systems for LIBOR exposure to ensure their readiness. The Company will also be embarking on
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addressing amendments to legacy loans and derivative contracts that require updated LIBOR cessation fallback language.

Future Legislative Developments

Future federal or state legislation may change banking statutes and the environment in which our banking subsidiary and we operate in substantial and unpredictable ways. At this time, it is difficult to anticipate the continued impact this expansive legislation will have on our business, our clients, and the financial industry generally. Changes resulting from further implementation of, changes to or repeal of the Dodd-Frank Act may impact the profitability of our business activities, require changes to certain of our business practices, impose upon us more stringent capital, liquidity and leverage requirements, or otherwise adversely affect our business. These changes may also require us to invest significant management attention and resources to evaluate and make any changes necessary to comply with new statutory and regulatory requirements. Failure to comply with any new requirements may negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.

COVID-19 and the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the CARES Act was signed into law on March 27, 2020 to provide national emergency economic relief measures. Many of the CARES Act’s programs are dependent upon the direct involvement of U.S. financial institutions, such as the Company and the Bank, and have been implemented through rules and guidance adopted by federal departments and agencies, including the U.S. Department of Treasury, the Federal Reserve and other federal banking agencies, including those with direct supervisory jurisdiction over the Company and the Bank. Furthermore, as the on-going COVID-19 pandemic evolves, federal regulatory authorities continue to issue additional guidance with respect to the implementation, lifecycle, and eligibility requirements for the various CARES Act programs as well as industry-specific recovery procedures for COVID-19. In addition, it is likely that Congress will enact supplementary COVID-19 response legislation, including amendments to the CARES Act or new bills comparable in scope to the CARES Act. The Company continues to assess the impact of the CARES Act and other statues, regulations and supervisory guidance related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Paycheck Protection Program. The CARES Act amended the SBA’s loan program, in which the Bank participates, to create a guaranteed, unsecured loan program, the PPP, to fund operational costs of eligible businesses, organizations and self-employed persons during COVID-19. On June 5, 2020, the Paycheck Protection Program Flexibility Act (the “Flexibility Act”) was enacted, which among other things, gave borrowers additional time and flexibility to use PPP loan proceeds, and made significant changes to the PPP to provide additional relief for small businesses. The Flexibility Act increased flexibility for small businesses that have been unable to rehire employees due to lack of employee availability, or have been unable to operate as normal due to COVID-19 related restrictions, extended the period that businesses have to use PPP funds to qualify for loan forgiveness to 24 weeks, up from 8 weeks under the original rules, and relaxed the requirements that loan recipients must adhere to in order to qualify for loan forgiveness. In addition, the Flexibility Act extended the payment deferral period for PPP loans until the date when the amount of loan forgiveness is determined and remitted to the lender. For PPP recipients who do not apply for forgiveness, the loan deferral period is 10 months after the applicable forgiveness period ends. On July 4, 2020, Congress enacted a new law to extend the deadline for applying for a PPP loan to August 8, 2020. The program was re-opened on January 11, 2021 with updated guidance outlining program changes to enhance its effectiveness and accessibility. This round of the PPP will serve new borrowers, as well as allow certain existing PPP borrowers to apply for a second draw PPP Loan and make a request to modify their first draw PPP loan. As a participating lender in the PPP, the Bank continues to monitor legislative, regulatory, and supervisory developments related thereto.

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Troubled Debt Restructuring and Loan Modifications for Affected Borrowers. The CARES Act permitted banks to suspend requirements under GAAP for loan modifications to borrowers affected by COVID-19 that would otherwise be characterized as Troubled Debt Restructurings, or TDRs, and suspend any determination related thereto if (i) the loan modification was made between March 1, 2020 and the earlier of December 31, 2020 or 60 days after the end of the COVID-19 emergency declaration, and (ii) the applicable loan was not more than 30 days past due as of December 31, 2019. The COVID-19 emergency declaration was reaffirmed on February 24, 2021 and will continue in effect beyond March 1, 2021. The federal banking agencies also issued guidance to encourage banks to make loan modifications for borrowers affected by COVID-19 and to assure banks that they would not be criticized by examiners for doing so. The Company applied this guidance to qualifying loan modifications. See Note 5 to the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements,” which is included in Part II, Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Form 10-K for further information about the COVID-19-related loan modifications completed by the Company.

Main Street Lending Program. The CARES Act encouraged the Federal Reserve, in coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury, to establish or implement various programs to help midsize businesses, nonprofits, and municipalities. On April 9, 2020, the Federal Reserve proposed the creation of the Main Street Lending Program (“MSLP”) to implement certain of these recommendations. The MSLP supports lending to small and medium-sized businesses that were in sound financial condition before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The MSLP operates through five facilities: the Main Street New Loan Facility, the Main Street Priority Loan Facility, the Main Street Expanded Loan Facility, the Nonprofit Organization New Loan Facility, and the Nonprofit Organization Expanded Loan Facility.

Available Information

We maintain a website at the address www.amerantbank.com. On our website, you can access, free of charge, our reports on Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K, as well as proxy statements on Schedule 14A and amendments to the materials. Materials are available online as soon as practicable after we file them with the SEC. Additionally, the SEC maintains a website at the address www.sec.gov that contains the information we file or furnish electronically with the SEC. The information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference in, or considered part of, this Form 10-K.
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Information about our Executive Officers
Millar Wilson. Mr. Wilson, age 68, has served as Chief Executive Officer of the Company and the Bank since 2009 and as the Vice-Chairman of the Company and the Bank from 2013 through February 2021 and as a director since 1987. Mr. Wilson also served as an alternate director for the Former Parent from 2015 to 2017. Under his leadership, the Bank has grown from $6.0 to $8.0 billion in assets. Mr. Wilson served in various roles with the Former Parent for over 40 years, including as Executive Director of International Business of the Former Parent from 2013 until January 2018. Mr. Wilson served as a member of the board of directors of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, Miami Branch from 2013 to 2018, as a member of the board of directors of Enterprise Florida, Inc. from 2009 to 2013, as chairman of the board of directors of the American Red Cross of Greater Miami and the Keys from 2001 to 2002 and as a director and treasurer of the Miami Dade College Foundation from 1999 to 2004. Mr. Wilson is a graduate of Bradford University, England and the Harvard Business School Management Development Program.
On January 14, 2021, Mr. Wilson, advised the Company’s Board of Directors that he will retire from his roles as Vice Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Company and the Bank, effective as described below by the Transition Date. Thereafter, he will remain a director of the Company and a director of the Bank. Also, on January 14, 2021, the Company’s Board of Directors appointed Gerald P. Plush, as the Company’s Executive-Vice Chairman effective as of February 15, 2021; and as Vice-Chairman and Chief Executive Officer effective the day following the filing of the Company’s 2020 Form 10-K with the SEC (the “Transition Date”). Mr. Plush has also been appointed as Executive Vice-Chairman of the Bank, effective on February 15, 2021 and as Vice-Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Bank, effective as of the Transition Date. Mr. Plush’s employment with the Company and the Bank shall be effective as of February 15th, 2021. To facilitate the transition, Mr. Wilson has agreed to relinquish his title as Vice Chairman of the Board effective February 15th, 2021 but remain as Chief Executive Officer until the Transition Date. After the Transition Date, Mr. Wilson will remain as an Executive Advisor of the Company to assist with the transition of the Vice-Chairman and Chief Executive Officer role until March 31, 2021.

Gerald P. Plush. Mr Plush, age 62, has served as director of the Company’s and the Bank’s Board of Directors since July and October 2019, respectively, and as Executive Vice-Chairman since February 2021. Mr. Plush is a highly respected financial services industry professional with over 30 years of senior executive leadership experience. From 2019 to February 2021, he was a partner at Patriot Financial Partners, or Patriot, a private equity firm where he sourced new investment opportunities and represented Patriot on the board of directors for multiple portfolio banks, specialty finance and fintech companies. In 2018, he served as CEO for Verdigris Holdings, Inc., leading this start up through the regulatory application, organization and initial funding processes. Mr. Plush’s other prominent leadership roles include his tenure with Santander US from 2014 to 2017, initially as CFO and Executive Committee member, and subsequently as Chief Administrative Officer. He served on the board of Santander Consumer from 2014 to 2016, and as a director for the FHLB of Pittsburgh from 2016 to 2017. Mr. Plush previously served as President, COO and Board Member for Webster Bank beginning in 2006 as EVP and Chief Financial Officer. He spent 11 years with MBNA America, most recently as Senior Executive Vice President & Managing Director for corporate development and prior to that as CFO - North America. Mr. Plush holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Accounting from St. Joseph’s University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He has been active in several well-known philanthropic organizations, most recently on the board of directors of Junior Achievement of Southeastern Pennsylvania.

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Carlos Iafigliola. Mr. Iafigliola, age 44, has served as Executive Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer of the Company and the Bank since May 2020. Mr. Iafigliola provides support and guidance to the Chief Executive Officer on the execution of the business strategy. He directly manages all finance areas, including treasury, accounting, budgeting, tax and reporting. He is also responsible for investor relations. Mr. Iafigliola has served in various roles with us since 2004 in the Treasury area, including Senior Vice President and Treasury Manager from 2015 through May 2020. In this capacity, he was responsible for balance sheet management and overall supervision of the Company’s treasury functions, including management of the investment portfolio, professional funding, and relationships with regulatory agencies and financial markets participants. Mr. Iafigliola earned a degree in Economics from Universidad Catolica Andres Bello in Caracas, Venezuela in 1998 and a Masters in Finance from Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administración (IESA) in 2003.
Alfonso Figueredo. Mr. Figueredo, age 59, was appointed as the Co-President and Chief Operating Officer in February 2018 and became President and Chief Operating Officer in March 2020. Mr. Figueredo is responsible for all the day-to-day business operations and administration activities, including operations & technology, digital transformation, and data management. Mr. Figueredo served in various roles with the Former Parent from 1988 to 2018, including as Executive Vice-President of Operations & Administration from 2015 to 2018 and Chief Financial Officer from 2008 to 2015. Previously, he held various management positions in finance from 1988 to 2008, including as Corporate Controller. Prior to joining the Former Parent, he worked at PricewaterhouseCoopers (“PwC’) in Caracas, Venezuela from 1981 to 1988. Mr. Figueredo served as President of the Bank Controllers Committee of the Venezuela Banking Association (ABV) from 2000 to 2005 and as a member of the Venezuelan-German Chamber of Commerce from 2012 to 2015. He received a degree in accounting and his MBA from Universidad Católica Andrés Bello in Caracas, Venezuela.
Miguel Palacios. Mr. Palacios, age 52, was appointed as the Executive Vice-President and Chief Business Officer in February 2018. Mr. Palacios is responsible for implementing our business strategies, managing the business units, and establishing performance and production targets to achieve our financial objectives. Mr. Palacios is responsible for products & channels. He has held various roles since joining the Bank in 2005, including as Executive Vice-President and Domestic Personal and Commercial Manager from 2012 to 2018, Special Assets Manager from 2009 to 2012 and Corporate International-LATAM Manager from 2005 to 2009. Mr. Palacios also served in various roles with the Former Parent from 1992 to 2004. Mr. Palacios graduated with a degree in Business Administration from Universidad Jose Maria Vargas in Caracas, Venezuela.
Alberto Capriles. Mr. Capriles, age 53, was appointed as Executive Vice-President in February 2018 and has been the Company’s Chief Risk Officer since 2016. Mr. Capriles is responsible for all enterprise risk management oversight, including credit, market, operational and information security risk, BSA/AML and consumer compliance. Mr. Capriles served in various roles with the Former Parent since 1995, including as Corporate Treasurer from 2008 to 2015, head of Corporate Market Risk Management from 1999 to 2008, and as Corporate Risk Specialist from 1995 to 1999, where he led the project to implement the Former Parent’s enterprise risk management model. Prior to joining the Former Parent, Mr. Capriles served as a foreign exchange trader with the Banco Central de Venezuela (Venezuelan Central Bank) from 1989 to 1991. Mr. Capriles has also served as a Professor in the Economics Department at Universidad Católica Andrés Bello in Caracas, Venezuela from 1996 to 2008. Mr. Capriles graduated with a degree in Economics from Universidad Católica Andrés Bello in Caracas, Venezuela and earned a master’s degree in International Development Economics from Yale University, and a MBA from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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On December 31, 2020, Jorge Trabanco, Executive Vice-President and Chief Accounting Officer, retired from the Company. Consistent with the Company’s effort to streamline operations and better align its operating structure with its business activities, the Company has determined to eliminate the position of Chief Accounting Officer and create a new Controller position, which is responsible for, among other matters, overseeing the Company’s accounting and reporting functions. On January 1, 2021, Armando Fleitas, started serving as Senior Vice-President and Controller of the Company and in this capacity serves as the principal accounting officer of the Company.
Armando Fleitas, 44, joined Amerant in 2010, serving in various management positions in the financial reporting area, including most recently, prior to his current role, as Senior Vice-President and Financial Reporting Manager. In his prior and current role, he has been responsible for overseeing the preparation of consolidated and stand-alone statutory financial statements, the quarterly and annual reports on Forms 10-Q and 10-K of the Company filed with the SEC. Previously, he was also responsible for overseeing the Company’s internal controls over financial reporting function and the vendor management function. Mr. Fleitas began his career in 1996 at PwC Venezuela, transitioning in 2003 to PwC in the US. At PwC, he held various roles in the areas of audit and accounting consulting services primarily serving customers in the financial services industry. Mr. Fleitas earned a bachelor’s degree in accounting from Universidad Católica Andrés Bello in Caracas, Venezuela, in 1998 and a master’s degree in accounting from the Huizenga School of Business and Entrepreneurship at Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, USA, in 2011. He is a Certified Public Accountant (CPA) in the United States (NH-2005-active, NY-2010-inactive), and in Venezuela (2006). He holds a Chartered Global Management Accountant (CGMA) designation and is a member of the Florida Institute of Certified Public Accountants (FICPA) and the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA).
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SUMMARY OF RISK FACTORS

Our business is subject to a number of risks that could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by forward-looking statements made in this Form 10-K or presented elsewhere from time to time. These risks are discussed more fully under “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and include, but are not limited to the following:

Risks Related to Our Business
Our profitability is subject to interest rate risk.
We may be adversely affected by the transition of LIBOR as a reference rate.
Our concentration of CRE loans could result in increased loan losses, and adversely affect our business, earnings and financial condition.
Many of our loans are to commercial borrowers, which have unique risks compared to other types of loans.
Our allowance for loan losses may prove inadequate or we may be negatively affected by credit risk exposures.
The collateral securing our loans may not be sufficient to protect us from a partial or complete loss if we are required to foreclose.
Liquidity risks could affect our operations and jeopardize our financial condition and certain funding sources could increase our interest rate expense.
Our valuation of securities and investments and the determination of the impairment amounts taken on our investments are subjective and, if changed, could materially adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition.
Our strategic plan and growth strategy may not be achieved as quickly or as fully as we seek.
Nonperforming and similar assets take significant time to resolve and may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
We may be contractually obligated to repurchase mortgage loans we sold to third parties on terms unfavorable to us.
Mortgage Servicing Rights, or MSRs, requirements may change and require us to incur additional costs and risks.
Our success depends on our ability to compete effectively in highly competitive markets.
Defaults by or deteriorating asset quality of other financial institutions could adversely affect us.
We could be required to write down our goodwill and other intangible assets.
Our historical consolidated financial data are not necessarily representative of the results we would have achieved as a separate company and may not be a reliable indicator of our future results.
We may need to raise additional capital in the future, but that capital may not be available when it is needed or on favorable terms.
Risks Related to Conditions in Venezuela
Conditions in Venezuela could adversely affect our operations.
Risks Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic and actions taken by governmental authorities to mitigate its spread has significantly impacted economic conditions, and a future outbreak of COVID-19 or another highly contagious disease, could adversely affect our business activities, results of operations and financial condition.
As a participating lender in the U.S. Small Business Administration Paycheck Protection Program, the Company and the Bank are subject to additional risks of litigation from the Bank’s customers or other parties regarding the Bank’s processing of loans for the PPP and risks that the SBA may not fund some or all PPP loan guaranties.
Risks Related to Risk Management, Internal Audit, Internal Controls and Disclosure Controls
Potential gaps in our risk management policies and internal audit procedures may leave us exposed to unidentified or unanticipated risk, which could negatively affect our business.
We may determine that our internal controls and disclosure controls could have deficiencies or weaknesses.
Risks Related to Technology and our Information Systems
Technological changes affect our business including potentially impacting the revenue stream of traditional products and services, and we may have fewer resources than many competitors to invest in technological improvements.
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Our information systems may experience interruptions and security breaches, and are exposed to cybersecurity threats.
Any failure to protect the confidentiality of customer information could adversely affect our reputation and subject us to financial sanctions and other costs that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Acquisitions and Expansion Activities
Future acquisitions and expansion activities may disrupt our business, dilute shareholder value and adversely affect our operating results.
Risks Related to our Indebtedness
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our debt, including the Senior Notes.
We and Amerant Florida Bancorp Inc., the subsidiary guarantor, are each a holding company with limited operations and depend on our subsidiaries for the funds required to make payments of principal and interest on the Senior Notes.
We may incur a substantial level of debt that could materially adversely affect our ability to generate sufficient cash to fulfill our obligations under the Senior Notes.
Risks Related to External and Market Factors
Our business may be adversely affected by economic conditions in general and by conditions in the financial markets.
Risks Related to Regulatory and Legal Matters
We are subject to extensive regulation that could limit or restrict our activities and adversely affect our earnings.
Litigation and regulatory investigations are increasingly common in our businesses and may result in significant financial losses and/or harm to our reputation.
We are subject to capital adequacy and liquidity standards, and if we fail to meet these standards our financial condition and operations would be adversely affected.
We will be subject to heightened regulatory requirements if our total assets grow in excess of $10 billion.
The Federal Reserve may require us to commit capital resources to support the Bank.
We may face higher risks of noncompliance with the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations than other financial institutions.
Failures to comply with the fair lending laws, CFPB regulations or the Community Reinvestment Act, or CRA, could adversely affect us.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
A limited market exists for the Company's shares of Class B common stock.
Holders of shares of Class B common stock have limited voting rights. As a result, holders of shares of Class B common stock will have limited ability to influence shareholder decisions.
Certain of our existing shareholders could exert significant control over the Company.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our common stock and trading volume could decline.
The stock price of financial institutions, like Amerant, may fluctuate significantly.
We have the ability to issue additional equity securities, which would lead to dilution of our issued and outstanding Company Shares.
Our dual classes of Company Shares may limit investments by investors using index-based strategies.
We do not currently intend to pay dividends on our common stock.
Certain provisions of our amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, Florida law, and U.S. banking laws could have anti-takeover effects.
We are an “emerging growth company,” and, as a result of the reduced disclosure and governance requirements applicable to emerging growth companies, our common stock may be less attractive to investors.
General Risk Factors
We may be unable to attract and retain key people to support our business.
Severe weather, natural disasters, global pandemics, acts of war or terrorism, theft, civil unrest, government expropriation or other external events could have significant effects on our business.

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Item 1A. RISK FACTORS
We are subject to risks and uncertainties that could potentially negatively impact our business, financial conditions, results of operations and cash flows. This section contains a description of the risk and uncertainties identified by management that could, individually or in combination, harm our business, results of operations, liquidity and financial condition, as well as of our financial instruments and our securities. In evaluating us and our business and making or continuing an investment in our securities, you should carefully consider the risks described below as well as other information contained in this Form 10-K and any risk factors and uncertainties discussed in our other public filings with the SEC under the caption “Risk Factors”. We may face other risks that are not contained in this Form 10-K, including additional risk that are not presently known, or that we presently deem immaterial. This Form 10-K and the risks discussed below also include forward-looking statements, and our actual results may differ substantially from those discussed in such forward-looking statements. Please refer to the section in this Form 10-K titled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” for additional information regarding forward-looking statements.

Risks Related to Our Business

Our profitability is subject to interest rate risk.
Our profitability depends to a large extent upon net interest income, which is the difference between interest earned on assets, such as loans and investments, and interest expense on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. Net interest income will be adversely affected by market interest rate changes where the interest we pay on deposits and borrowings increases faster than the interest earned on loans and investments. Since our balance sheet is asset sensitive, a decrease in interest rates or a flattening or inversion of the yield curve could adversely affect us. Changes in market interest rates are unpredictable as they are affected by many factors beyond our control, including general economic conditions (inflation, recession, unemployment), fiscal and monetary policy, and changes in the United States and other financial markets. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the financial markets and has prompted several actions by the Federal Reserve that have resulted in the decline of market interest rates to historical lows. This decline in interest rates could adversely affect our net interest income, margins and profitability, particularly if it is prolonged for a significant time period.
The production of mortgages and other loans and the value of collateral securing our loans, are dependent on interest rates as well as demand within the markets we serve. Increases in interest rates generally decrease the market values of fixed-rate, interest-bearing investments and loans held, the value of mortgage and other loans produced, including long term fixed-rate loans and the value of loans sold, mortgage loan activities and the collateral securing our loans, and therefore may adversely affect our liquidity and earnings, to the extent not offset by potential increases in our net interest margin, or NIM. In addition, in declining rate environments, we may experience a significant number of loan prepayments and replacement loans may be priced at a lower rate generating a decrease in our net interest income.
We may be adversely affected by the transition of LIBOR as a reference rate.
The anticipated cessation of LIBOR quotes after 2021 creates substantial risks to the banking industry, including us. A significant number of our loans, borrowings, derivative contracts and financial instruments are either directly or indirectly dependent on LIBOR and the transition from LIBOR could create considerable costs and additional risks. Unless alternative rates can be negotiated and determined, our floating rate loans, funding and derivative obligations that specify the use of a LIBOR index, will no longer adjust and may become fixed rate instruments at the time LIBOR ceases to exist. This would adversely affect our asset/liability management and could lead to more asset and liability mismatches and interest rate risk unless appropriate LIBOR alternatives are developed. The expected discontinuance of LIBOR may also affect interest rate hedges and result in certain of these becoming ineffective and ineligible for hedge accounting. It could also disrupt the capital and credit markets as a result of confusion or uncertainty.
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Several regulators, including the Federal Reserve, and other market participants in the U.S. and other countries have sponsored initiatives aimed at (a) transitioning to alternative reference rates and (b) addressing risks related to the language in legacy contracts given the possibility that LIBOR might cease being published. In spite of progress made by regulators and market participants to prepare for the discontinuation of LIBOR, uncertainties still remain; including whether replacement benchmark rates will become a market standard that replaces LIBOR, and if so, its effects on the terms of any transaction or financial instrument, our customers, or our future results of operations or financial condition. We are unable to predict what the impact of transition from LIBOR will be and if we fail to successfully manage the transition it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.

Our concentration of CRE loans could result in increased loan losses, and adversely affect our business, earnings, and financial condition.
CRE is cyclical and poses risks of possible loss due to concentration levels and risks of the assets being financed, which include loans for the acquisition and development of land and residential, multifamily, retail, office, industrial and hotel construction.
The Bank’s portfolio of CRE loans was 325.0% of its risk-based capital, or 48.6% of its total loans, as of December 31, 2020 compared to 353.3% of its risk-based capital, or 51.7% of its total loans, as of December 31, 2019. Our CRE loans included approximately $1.5 billion and $1.6 billion of fixed rate loans at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. In a rising interest rate environment, fixed rate loans may adversely affect our margin and present asset/liability mismatches and risks since our liabilities are generally floating rate or have shorter maturities.
As of December 31, 2020, approximately 52% of total CRE loans were in Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach counties, Florida, 24% were in the greater New York City area, including all five boroughs, and 16% were in the greater Houston, Texas area. The remainder were in other Florida, Texas and New York/New Jersey markets. Our CRE loans are affected by economic conditions in those markets.
In addition, lower demand for CRE, and reduced availability of, and higher costs for, CRE lending could adversely affect our CRE loans and sales of our other real estate owned, or OREO, and therefore impact our earnings and financial condition, including our capital and liquidity.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on the economy and real estate markets. Although the housing and real estate markets have shown continued improvement since the outset of the pandemic, they remain at depressed levels in certain regions. If this positive trend were to revert and decline, we may experience higher than normal delinquencies and loan losses. In addition, if the United States economy returns to a recessionary state, management believes that it could significantly affect the economic conditions of the market areas we serve and we could experience significantly higher delinquencies and loan losses.
Many of our loans are to commercial borrowers, which have unique risks compared to other types of loans.

As of December 31, 2020, approximately $2.8 billion or 49% and $1.2 billion or 20% of our loan portfolio was comprised of CRE loans and commercial loans, respectively. Since payments on these loans are often dependent on the successful operation or development of the property or business involved, their repayment is sensitive to adverse conditions in the real estate market and the general economy. Consequently, downturns in the real estate market and economy increase the risk related to commercial loans, particularly CRE loans. In addition, loan specific risks may also affect commercial loans, including risks associated with construction, cost overruns, project completion risk, general contractor credit risk and risks associated with the ultimate sale or use of the completed construction. If a decline in economic conditions, natural disasters affecting business development or other issues cause difficulties for our borrowers of these types of loans, if we fail to assess the credit of these loans accurately when underwriting them or if we fail to adequately continue to monitor the performance of these loans, our loan portfolio could
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experience delinquencies, defaults and credit losses that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our allowance for loan losses may prove inadequate or we may be negatively affected by credit risk exposures.

We periodically review our allowance for loan losses for adequacy considering economic conditions and trends, collateral values and credit quality indicators, including past charge-off experience and levels of past due loans and nonperforming assets. We cannot be certain that our allowance for loan losses will be adequate over time to cover credit losses in our portfolio because of unanticipated adverse changes in the economy, market conditions or events adversely affecting specific customers, industries or markets, and changes in borrower behaviors. Differences between our actual experience and assumptions and the effectiveness of our models may adversely affect our business, financial condition, including liquidity and capital, and results of operations. In addition, bank regulators periodically perform reviews of our allowance for loan losses and may require an increase of our provision for loan losses or the recognition of further charge-offs, based on judgments that differ from those of management. As a result, we may elect, or be required, to make further increases in our provision for loan losses in the future, particularly if economic conditions remain challenging for a significant time period or deteriorate further.
In addition, in June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, issued an Accounting Standard Update, ASU, that changed the loss model to consider current expected credit losses, or CECL. As an EGC, CECL will be effective for our first fiscal quarter beginning after December 31, 2022. However, if we cease to be an EGC, CECL becomes effective for our first fiscal quarter after losing the EGC status. CECL will substantially change how we calculate our allowance for loan losses. We cannot predict when and how it will affect our results of operations and the volatility of such results and our financial condition, including our regulatory capital.
The collateral securing our loans may not be sufficient to protect us from a partial or complete loss if we are required to foreclose.

Some of our loans are secured by a lien on specified collateral of our customers. However, the collateral may not protect us from suffering a loss if we foreclose on the collateral. Several factors may negatively impact the value of the collateral that we have a security interest in, including: changes in general economic and industry conditions; changes in the real estate markets in which we lend; inherent uncertainties in the future value of the collateral; the financial condition and/or cash flows of the borrower and/or the project being financed; and, any representation by the borrower of, or failure to keep adequate records related to, important information concerning the collateral.
Any one or more of the preceding factors could materially impair our ability to collect on specified collateral of our customers in the event loans we have made to such customers are not repaid in accordance with their terms, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Liquidity risks could affect our operations and jeopardize our financial condition and certain funding sources could increase our interest rate expense.
Liquidity is essential to our business. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, proceeds from loan repayments or sales, and other sources could have a substantial negative effect on our liquidity. Our funding sources include federal funds purchased, securities sold under repurchase agreements, core (domestic and foreign) and non-core deposits (such as reciprocal deposit programs and brokered deposits), and short-and long-term debt, the Federal Reserve Discount Window (Discount Window) and Federal Home Loan Bank of Atlanta, or FHLB, advances. We maintain a portfolio of securities that can be used as a source of liquidity. Any significant restriction or disruption of our ability to obtain funding from these or other sources could have a negative effect on our ability to satisfy our current and future financial obligations, which could materially affect our financial condition or results of operations.
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The use of brokered deposits and wholesale funding not only increases our liquidity risk but could also increase our interest rate expense and potentially increase our deposit insurance costs. Our brokered deposits at December 31, 2020 were 11.1% of total deposits. Wholesale funding, which includes FHLB advances and brokered deposits, represented 24.8% of our total funding at December 31, 2020. At December 31, 2020, the Company had $530.0 million of FHLB advances with interest rates ranging from 0.62% to 0.97% which are callable prior to their maturity. This feature, if acted upon, could cause the cost of this funding to increase faster than anticipated. In addition, excessive reliance on brokered deposits and wholesale funding is viewed by the regulators as potentially risky for all institutions and may adversely affect our liquidity and the regulatory views of our liquidity. Institutions that are less than well-capitalized may be unable to raise or renew brokered deposits under the prompt corrective action rules. See “Supervision and Regulation—Capital.”
We may be able, depending upon market conditions, to otherwise borrow money or issue and sell debt and preferred or common securities in public or private transactions. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance or capitalize our activities on terms which are acceptable to us could be impaired by factors that affect us specifically or the financial services industry or the economy in general. Our ability to borrow or obtain funding, if needed, could also be impaired by factors that are not specific to us, such as disruptions in the financial markets or negative views and expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry. In addition, Alternative funding to deposits may carry higher costs than sources currently utilized. If we are required to rely more heavily on more expensive and potentially less stable funding sources, profitability and liquidity could be adversely affected. The availability of additional financing will depend on a variety of factors such as market conditions, the general availability of credit, our credit ratings and our credit capacity. If additional financing sources are unavailable or are not available on acceptable terms, our profitability and future prospects could be adversely affected.
The Company is an entity separate and distinct from the Bank. The Federal Reserve Act, Section 23A, limits our ability to borrow from the Bank, and the Company generally relies on dividends paid from the Bank for funds to meet its obligations, including under its outstanding trust preferred securities and senior debt securities. The Bank’s ability to pay dividends is limited by law and may be limited by regulatory action to preserve the Bank’s capital adequacy. Any such limitations could adversely affect the Company’s liquidity.
Our valuation of securities and investments and the determination of the impairment amounts taken on our investments are subjective and, if changed, could materially adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition.
Fixed maturity securities, as well as short-term investments that are reported at estimated fair value, represent the majority of our total investments. We define fair value generally as the price that would be received in the sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability. Considerable judgment is often required in interpreting market data to develop estimates of fair value, and the use of different assumptions or valuation methodologies may have a material effect on the estimated fair value amounts. During periods of market disruption, including periods of significantly rising or high interest rates, rapidly widening credit spreads or illiquidity, it may be difficult to value certain of our securities if trading becomes less frequent or market data becomes less observable and certain asset classes may become illiquid. In those cases, the valuation process includes inputs that are less observable and require more subjectivity and management judgment. Valuations may result in estimated fair values which vary significantly from the amount at which the investments may ultimately be sold. Further, rapidly changing and unprecedented credit and equity market conditions could materially affect the valuation of securities in our financial statements and the period-to-period changes in estimated fair value could vary significantly. As of December 31, 2020, the fair value of the Company’s debt securities available for sale investment portfolio was approximately $1.2 billion and we had pretax accumulated unrealized gains on those securities of $37.3 million. Factors beyond our control can significantly influence the fair value of securities in our portfolio and can cause potential adverse changes to the fair value of these securities. These factors include but are not limited to increases or decreases in interest rates, rating agency downgrades of the securities and defaults. Decreases in the estimated fair value of securities we hold may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
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The determination of the amount of impairments varies by investment type and is based upon our periodic evaluation and assessment of known and inherent risks associated with the respective asset class. Such evaluations and assessments are revised as conditions change and new information becomes available. We reflect any changes in impairments in earnings as such evaluations are revised. However, historical trends may not be indicative of future impairments. In addition, any such future impairments or allowances could have a materially adverse effect on our earnings and financial position. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates.”
Our strategic plan and growth strategy may not be achieved as quickly or as fully as we seek.
We have adopted and continue to implement and refine our strategic plan to simplify our business model and focus our activities as a community bank serving our domestic customers and select foreign depositors and wealth management customers. Our plan includes a focus on profitable growth, cross selling to gain a larger share of our respective customers' business, core deposit generation, loan growth in our local markets, changes in loan mix to higher margin loans, improving our customer experience, improving our business and operational processes, and achieving operating efficiencies and cost reductions.
The strategic plan's technology changes and systems conversions involve execution risk and other risks. Our plans may take longer than we anticipate to implement, and the results we achieve may not be as successful as we seek, all of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Many of these factors, including interest rates, are not within our control. Additionally, the results of our strategic plan are subject to the other risks described herein that affect our business, which include: lending, seeking deposits and wealth management clients in highly competitive domestic markets; our ability to achieve our growth plans or to manage our growth effectively; the benefits from our technology investments may take longer than expected to be realized and may not be as large as expected, or may require additional investments; and if we are unable to reduce our cost structure, we may not be able to meet our profitability objectives.
Nonperforming and similar assets take significant time to resolve and may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
At December 31, 2020 and 2019, our nonperforming loans totaled $87.7 million and $32.9 million, respectively, or 1.5% and 0.6% of total loans, respectively. In addition, we had OREO of $0.4 million and $42 thousand at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Our non-performing assets may adversely affect our net income in various ways. We do not record interest income on nonaccrual loans or OREO, and these assets require higher loan administration and other costs, thereby adversely affecting our income. Decreases in the value of these assets, or the underlying collateral, or in the related borrowers’ performance or financial condition, whether or not due to economic and market conditions beyond our control, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, the resolution of nonperforming assets requires commitments of time from management, which can be detrimental to their other responsibilities. There can be no assurance that we will not experience increases in nonperforming loans, OREO and similar nonperforming assets in the future.
We may be contractually obligated to repurchase mortgage loans we sold to third-parties on terms unfavorable to us.
As a routine part of our business, we originate mortgage loans that we subsequently sell in the secondary market under agreements that contain representations and warranties related to, among other things, the origination and characteristics of the mortgage loans. We do not currently originate mortgage loans for direct sale to any governmental agencies and government sponsored enterprises, or GSEs, such as Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, but expect to make such direct sales in the future. In connection with the sale of these loans to private investors and GSEs, we make customary representations and warranties, the breach of which may result in our being required to repurchase the loan or loans. Furthermore, the amount paid may be greater than the fair value of the loan or loans at the time of the repurchase. No mortgage loan repurchase requests have been made to us; however, if repurchase
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requests were made to us, we may have to establish reserves for possible repurchases, which could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Mortgage Servicing Rights, or MSRs, requirements may change and require us to incur additional costs and risks.
The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, or CFPB, adopted new residential mortgage servicing standards in January 2014 that add additional servicing requirements, increase our required servicer activities and delay foreclosures, among other things. These may adversely affect our costs to service residential mortgage loans, and together with the Basel III Capital Rules, may decrease the returns on MSRs. Declines in interest rates tend to reduce the value of MSRs as refinancing may reduce serviced mortgages.
The CFPB and the bank regulators continue to bring enforcement actions and develop proposals, rules and practices that could increase the costs of providing mortgage servicing. Historically, we have not serviced mortgage loans for others. However, if we were to provide servicing in the future, regulation of mortgage servicing could make it more difficult and costly to timely realize the value of collateral securing such loans upon a borrower default.
Our success depends on our ability to compete effectively in highly competitive markets.
The banking markets in which we do business are highly competitive and our future growth and success will depend on our ability to compete effectively in these markets. We compete for deposits, loans, and other financial services in our markets with other local, regional and national commercial banks, thrifts, credit unions, mortgage lenders, trust services providers and securities advisory and brokerage firms. Marketplace lenders operating nationwide over the internet are also growing rapidly, other fintech developments, including blockchain and other technologies, may potentially disrupt the financial services industry and impact the way banks do business. Many of our competitors offer products and services different from us, and have substantially greater resources, name recognition and market presence than we do, which benefits them in attracting business. In addition, larger competitors may be able to price loans and deposits more aggressively than we are able to and have broader and more diverse customer and geographic bases to draw upon. The Dodd-Frank Act allows others to branch into our markets more easily from other states. Failures of other banks with offices in our markets and small institutions wishing to sell or merge due to cost pressures could also lead to the entrance of new, stronger competitors in our markets.
Defaults by or deteriorating asset quality of other financial institutions could adversely affect us.
We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, central clearinghouses, commercial banks, investment banks, hedge funds and investment funds, our correspondent banks and other financial institutions. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of the default of our counterparty. In addition, with respect to secured transactions, credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral held by us cannot be realized or is liquidated at prices insufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or derivative exposure due to us. We also may have exposure to these financial institutions in the form of unsecured debt instruments, derivatives and other securities. Further, potential action by governments and regulatory bodies in response to financial crises affecting the global banking system and financial markets, such as nationalization, conservatorship, receivership and other intervention, or lack of action by governments and central banks, as well as deterioration in the banks’ creditworthiness, could adversely affect the value and/or liquidity of these instruments, securities, transactions and investments or limit our ability to trade with them. Any losses or impairments to the carrying value of these investments or other changes may materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
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We could be required to write down our goodwill and other intangible assets.
We had goodwill of $19.5 million at December 31, 2020 and 2019, which primarily represents the excess of consideration paid over the fair value of the net assets of a savings bank acquired in 2006 and the Cayman Bank Acquisition in 2019. We perform our goodwill impairment testing annually using a process which requires the use of fair value estimates and judgment. The estimated fair value is affected by the performance of the business, which may be especially diminished by prolonged market declines. If it is determined that the goodwill has been impaired, we must write down the goodwill by the amount of the impairment, with a corresponding charge to net income. Although we have had no goodwill write-downs historically, any such write-downs could have an adverse effect on our results of operations or financial position. Also, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Company completed an assessment of goodwill for potential impairment on an interim basis as of June 30 and September 30, 2020 and although it did not identify any impairment in these instances, there can be no assurance that prolonged market volatility resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic will not result in impairments to goodwill in future periods.
Deferred income tax represents the tax effect of the timing differences between financial accounting and tax reporting. Deferred tax assets, or DTAs, are assessed periodically by management to determine whether they are realizable. Factors in management’s determination include the performance of the business, including the ability to generate future taxable income. If, based on available information, it is more likely than not that the deferred income tax asset will not be realized, then a valuation allowance must be established with a corresponding charge to net income. Such charges could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial position. In addition, changes in the corporate tax rates could affect the value of our DTAs and may require a write-off of a portion of some of those assets. The Tax Cuts and JOBS ACt of 2017 (the “2017 Tax Act”) reduced the U.S. corporate income tax rate to 21% effective for periods starting January 1, 2018, from a prior rate of 35%. In December 2017, we remeasured our net DTAs and recorded $9.6 million in additional tax expense and a corresponding reduction in net income as a result of the 2017 Tax Act. At December 31, 2020, we had net DTAs with a book value of $11.7 million, based on a U.S. corporate income tax rate of 21%. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates.”
In addition, long-lived assets, including assets such as real estate, also require impairment testing. This testing is done to determine whether changes in circumstances indicate that we will be unable to recover the carrying amount of these assets. Such write-downs could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial position.
Our historical consolidated financial data are not necessarily representative of the results we would have achieved as a separate company and may not be a reliable indicator of our future results.
Because we completed a Spin-off from our Former Parent in August of 2018, our historical consolidated financial data included herein does not necessarily reflect the financial condition, results of operations or cash flows we would have achieved as a standalone company during the periods presented or those we will achieve in the future. We underwent a comprehensive strategic planning process to evaluate how we conduct business, including how to focus on our domestic U.S. business while better serving our valued foreign customers, reducing costs, and increasing core deposits, fee income, margins, and the number of services we provide per household and our profitability. As a result of these matters, among others, it may be difficult for investors to compare our future results to historical results or to evaluate our relative performance or trends in our business.
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We may need to raise additional capital in the future, but that capital may not be available when it is needed or on favorable terms.

We anticipate that our current capital resources will satisfy our capital requirements for the foreseeable future under currently effective regulatory capital rules. We may, however, need to raise additional capital to support our growth or currently unanticipated losses, or to meet the needs of the communities we serve. Our ability to raise additional capital, if needed, will depend, among other things, on conditions in the capital markets at that time, which may be limited by events outside our control, and on our financial performance. If we cannot raise additional capital on acceptable terms when needed, our ability to further expand our operations through internal growth and acquisitions could be limited.

Risks Related to Conditions in Venezuela

Conditions in Venezuela could adversely affect our operations.

At December 31, 2020, 37.0% of our deposits, or approximately $2.1 billion, were from Venezuelan residents. The Bank’s Venezuelan deposits declined from December 31, 2016 to December 31, 2020 (see Deposits by Country of Domicile in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations). These declines were due in part to actions by the Company to reduce its compliance costs and from economic conditions in Venezuela that adversely affected our Venezuelan customers’ ability to generate and save U.S. dollars and the use of their deposits to fund living expenses and other investment activities. All of the Bank’s deposits are denominated in U.S. Dollars. Adverse economic conditions in Venezuela may continue to negatively affect our Venezuelan deposit base and our ability to retain and grow these relationships, as customers rely on their Dollar deposits to spend without being able to earn additional Dollars.
In addition, although we seek to increase our trust, brokerage and investment advisory business from our domestic markets, substantially all our revenue from these services currently is from Venezuelan customers. Economic and other conditions in Venezuela, or U.S. regulations or sanctions affecting the services we may provide to our Venezuelan customers may adversely affect the amounts of assets we manage or custody, and the trading volumes of our Venezuelan customers, reducing fees and commissions we earn from these businesses.
Risks Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic and actions taken by governmental authorities to mitigate its spread has significantly impacted economic conditions, and a future outbreak of COVID-19 or another highly contagious disease, could adversely affect our business activities, results of operations and financial condition.
The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic on March 11, 2020, and subsequently, on March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency with respect to COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic has had, and another pandemic in the future could have, a negative impact on the economy and financial markets, globally and in the United States.
In many countries, including the United States, the COVID-19 pandemic and the implementation of measures by governmental authorities to contain its spread, including “shelter at home” orders, as well as mandating business and school closures and restricting travel, has had a significant negative impact on economic activity and has contributed to significant volatility and negative pressure in financial markets and the United States economy, which has and could continue to disrupt the business, activities and operations of our customers, as well as of our business and operations.
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Several states and cities across the United States, including the States of Florida, New York and Texas and cities where we have banking centers, LPOs and where our principal place of business is located, have also implemented quarantines, restrictions on travel, “shelter at home” orders, and restrictions on types of business that may continue to operate. While following the declaration of the pandemic, some of these measures and restrictions have been lifted, and certain businesses reopened, the Company cannot predict when circumstances may change and restrictions currently in place may be lifted, or whether restrictions that have been lifted will need to be imposed or tightened in the future if viewed as necessary due to public health concerns. Although several vaccines to limit the effects and spread of COVID-19 have been developed and approved, their rollout and administration to the population in the United States and globally is still in its initial stages. In addition, the efficacy of these vaccines in fighting and/or preventing recently identified and more contagious variants of COVID-19 is still undetermined. A significant increase in the number of COVID-19 cases, or an outbreak of another highly infectious or contagious disease, particularly if they occur in the markets where we operate, may result in a significant decrease in business and/or cause our customers to be unable to meet existing payment or other obligations. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures implemented to contain it, almost every industry has been and is being directly or indirectly impacted, including industries in which our customers operate.
In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the financial markets and has prompted several actions by the Federal Reserve that affect us. Market interest rates have declined significantly and are at historical lows. These decline in interest rates, particularly if they are sustained for a significant time, could adversely affect our net interest income, margins and profitability. Also, since the start of the pandemic, a number of our customers have requested and been granted by the Company loan payment relief options, including deferral and/or forbearance options. In addition, in the first and second quarters of 2020, the Company significantly increased its provision for loan losses primarily due to estimated losses reflecting deterioration in the macro-economic environment due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic across multiple impacted sectors. The longer and more profound the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has globally, in the United States and on our customers and their businesses, the more likely we will have to recognize loan losses or continue to increase the provision for loan losses and we could continue to experience a material adverse effect to our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The spread of COVID-19 has caused us to modify our business practices, including the implementation of temporary branch and office closures as well as a remote work protocol due to the need to implement social distancing and limit occupancy of businesses in the states and cities where we operate. An extended period of remote work arrangements could introduce operational risks, including but not limited to cybersecurity risks, and limit our ability to provide services and products to our customers and, in general, manage our business.
Also, the COVID-19 pandemic, or a future pandemic, could have material adverse effects on our ability to successfully operate and on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows due to, several factors including but not limited to the following:
The reduced economic activity may severely impact our customers' businesses, financial condition and liquidity and may prevent one or more of our customers from meeting their obligations to us in full, or at all, or to otherwise seek modifications of such obligations;
A decline in the credit quality of our loan portfolio leading to a need to increase our allowance for loan losses;
A decline in the credit quality of loans used as collateral to obtain advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank may trigger a request to replace the loans used as collateral with securities and may negatively impact our liquidity ratio;
A significant decline in the value of the collateral used to secure loans that have a related interest rate swap agreement may limit our ability to realize enough value from the collateral to cover the outstanding balance of the loan and the related swap liability;
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any impairment in value of our tangible and/or intangible assets which could be recorded as a result of weaker economic conditions;
the reduced economic activity could develop into a local and/or global economic recession, which could adversely affect the demand for our products and services;
increased unemployment and decreased consumer confidence, which could adversely affect account openings and result in decreased deposit activity and increased withdrawal activity;
the potential volatility in the fair value and yields of our investment portfolio;
a severe disruption and instability in the global financial markets or deterioration in credit and financing conditions may affect our ability to access the debt and/or equity markets in the future on attractive terms, or at all, or negatively impact our credit ratings; and
any reduction/impairment in value of the collateral used by our customers to secure their obligations with us that could be recorded as a result of weaker economic conditions.
The extent of the impact of COVID-19 over the Company and its customers will depend on a number of issues and future developments, which, at this time, are extremely uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including the scope, severity and duration of the pandemic, the actions taken to contain or mitigate the impact of the pandemic, and the direct and indirect effects that the pandemic and related containment measures may have, among others.
The COVID-19 pandemic presents material uncertainty and risk with respect to the financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and performance of the Company and the rapid development and fluidity of the situation surrounding the pandemic prevents any prediction as to its full adverse impact. Moreover, many risk factors described in this Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 should be interpreted as heightened risks as a result of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
As a participating lender in the U.S. Small Business Administration (“SBA”) Paycheck Protection Program (“PPP”), the Company and the Bank are subject to additional risks of litigation from the Bank’s customers or other parties regarding the Bank’s processing of loans for the PPP and risks that the SBA may not fund some or all PPP loan guaranties.
The Company is participating as an eligible lender in a loan program created under the CARES Act and administered through the SBA referred to as the PPP. Under the PPP, small businesses and other entities and individuals can apply for loans from existing SBA lenders and other approved regulated lenders that enroll in the program, subject to several limitations and eligibility criteria. Since the inception of the PPP several financial institutions have been subject to litigation regarding the processes and procedures used in processing applications for the PPP. The Company and the Bank may be exposed to the risk of similar litigation, both from customers and non-customers that approached the Bank regarding PPP loans, regarding its process and procedures used in processing applications for the PPP. In addition to litigation, our participation in the PPP exposes us to the possibility of governmental investigations, enforcement actions and negative publicity. If any litigation, enforcement action or other action is filed against the Company and is not resolved in a manner favorable to us, it may result in significant financial liability or adversely affect the Company's reputation. In addition, litigation can be costly, regardless of the outcome. Any financial liability, litigation costs or damage to our reputation caused by PPP related litigation could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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The Bank also has credit risk on PPP loans if a determination is made by the SBA that there is a deficiency in the manner in which a loan was originated, funded, or serviced by the Bank, such as an issue with the eligibility of a borrower to receive a PPP loan, which may or may not be related to the ambiguity in the laws, rules and guidance regarding the operation of the PPP. In the event of a loss resulting from a default on a PPP loan and a determination by the SBA that there was a deficiency in the manner in which the PPP loan was originated, funded, or serviced by the Company, the SBA may deny its liability under the guaranty, reduce the amount of the guaranty, or, if it has already paid under the guaranty, seek recovery of any loss related to the deficiency from the Company.
Risks Related to Risk Management, Internal Audit, Internal Controls and Disclosure Controls

Potential gaps in our risk management policies and internal audit procedures may leave us exposed to unidentified or unanticipated risk, which could negatively affect our business.

Our enterprise risk management and internal audit programs are designed to mitigate material risks and loss to us. We have developed and continue to develop risk management and internal audit policies and procedures to reflect ongoing reviews of our risks and expect to continue to do so in the future. Nonetheless, our policies and procedures may not identify every risk to which we are exposed, and our internal audit process may fail to detect such weaknesses or deficiencies in our risk management framework. Many of our methods for managing risk and exposures are based upon the use of observed historical market behavior to model or project potential future exposure. Models used by our business are based on assumptions and projections. These models may not operate properly or our inputs and assumptions may be inaccurate, or may not be adopted quickly enough to reflect changes in behavior, markets or technology. As a result, these methods may not fully predict future exposures, which can be significantly different and greater than historical measures indicate. Other risk management methods depend upon the evaluation of information regarding markets, customers, or other matters that are publicly available or otherwise accessible to us. This information may not always be accurate, complete, up-to-date or properly evaluated. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that we can effectively review and monitor all risks or that all of our employees will closely follow our risk management policies and procedures, nor can there be any assurance that our risk management policies and procedures will enable us to accurately identify all risks and limit timely our exposures based on our assessments. All of these could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We may determine that our internal controls and disclosure controls could have deficiencies or weaknesses.
We regularly review our internal controls for deficiencies and weaknesses. We have had no material weaknesses, but we have had deficiencies in the past. Although we seek to prevent, discover and promptly cure any deficiencies or weaknesses in internal controls over financial reporting, or ICFR, we may have material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in the future. If we are unable to remediate such weaknesses or deficiencies, we may be unable to accurately report our financial results, or report them within the timeframes required by law or Nasdaq rules. Failure to comply with the SEC internal controls regulations could also potentially subject us to investigations or enforcement actions by the SEC or other regulatory authorities. If we fail to implement and maintain effective ICFR, our ability to accurately and timely report our financial results could be impaired, which could result in late filings of our periodic reports under the Exchange Act, restatements of our consolidated financial statements, suspension or delisting of our common stock from the Nasdaq Global Select Market. Such events could cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, the trading price of our shares of common stock could decline and our access to the capital markets or other financing sources could be limited.
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Risks Related to Technology and our Information Systems
Technological changes affect our business including potentially impacting the revenue stream of traditional products and services, and we may have fewer resources than many competitors to invest in technological improvements.
The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services, mainly provided by third party vendors, and a growing demand for mobile and other smart device and computer banking applications. In addition to allowing us to service our clients better, the effective use of technology may increase efficiency and may enable financial institutions to reduce costs and the risks associated with fraud and other operational risks. Technological changes may impact our product and service offerings and may negatively affect the revenue stream of our traditional products and services. The largely unregulated Fintech industry has increased its participation in the lending and payments businesses, and has increased competition in these businesses. This trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Our future success will depend, in part, upon our ability to use technology to provide products and services that meet our customers’ preferences and which create additional efficiencies in operations, while controlling the risk of cyberattacks and disruptions, and data breaches. Our strategic plan contemplates simplifying and improving our information technology, and making significant additional investments in technology. We may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services as quickly or at the costs anticipated. Furthermore, replacing third-party dependent solutions may also be time consuming and could potentially create disruptions with other already implemented solutions. Such technology may prove less effective than anticipated, and conversion issues may increase the costs of the new technology and delay its use. Many larger competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements and, increasingly, non-banking firms are using technology to compete with traditional lenders for loans and other banking services.
Our information systems may experience interruptions and security breaches, and are exposed to cybersecurity threats.
We rely heavily on communications and information systems, including those provided by third-party service providers, to conduct our business. Any failure, interruption, or security breach of these systems could result in failures or disruptions which could affect our customers’ privacy and our customer relationships, generally. Our systems and networks, as well as those of our third-party service providers, are subject to security risks and could be susceptible to cyberattacks. Financial institutions and their service providers are regularly attacked, some of which have involved sophisticated and targeted attack methods, including use of stolen access credentials, malware, ransomware, phishing, structured query language injection attacks, and distributed denial-of-service attacks, among others. Such cyberattacks may also be directed at disrupting the operations of public companies or their business partners, which are intended to effect unauthorized fund transfers, obtain unauthorized access to confidential information, destroy data, disable or degrade service, sabotage systems, and/or cause serious reputational harm often through the introduction of computer viruses or malware, cyberattacks and other means. Cyber threats are rapidly evolving and we may not be able to anticipate or prevent all such attacks and could be held liable for any security breach or loss.
Despite our cybersecurity policies and procedures and our efforts to monitor and ensure the integrity of our and our service providers’ systems, we may not be able to anticipate all types of security threats, nor may we be able to implement preventive measures effective against all such security threats. The techniques used by cyber criminals change frequently, may not be recognized until launched and can originate from a wide variety of sources, including outside groups such as external service providers, organized crime affiliates, terrorist organizations or hostile foreign governments or agencies. These risks may increase in the future as the use of mobile banking and other internet-based products and services continues to grow.
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Security breaches or failures may have serious adverse financial and other consequences, including significant legal and remediation costs, disruption of operations, misappropriation of confidential information, damage to systems operated by us or our third-party service providers, as well as damaging our customers and our counterparties. Such losses and claims may not be covered by our insurance. In addition to the immediate costs of any failure, interruption or security breach, including those at our third-party service providers, these events could damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny, or expose us to civil litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Any failure to protect the confidentiality of customer information could adversely affect our reputation and subject us to financial sanctions and other costs that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Various federal, state and foreign laws enforced by the bank regulators and other agencies protect the privacy and security of customers’ non-public personal information. Many of our employees have access to, and routinely process, sensitive personal customer information, including through their access to information technology systems. We rely on various internal processes and controls to protect the confidentiality of client information that is accessible to, or in the possession of, the Company and its employees. It is possible that an employee could, intentionally or unintentionally, disclose or misappropriate confidential client information or our data could be the subject of a cybersecurity attack. Such personal data could also be compromised by third-party hackers via intrusions into our systems or those of service providers or persons we do business with such as credit bureaus, data processors and merchants who accept credit or debit cards for payment; as well as brand impersonation phishing attacks that seek to obtain customers’ personal data through the use of fraudulent emails and/or websites impersonating the Company’s brand. If we are subject to a successful cyberattack or fail to maintain adequate internal controls, or if our employees fail to comply with our policies and procedures, misappropriation or intentional or unintentional inappropriate disclosure or misuse of client information could occur. Such cyberattacks, if they result from internal control inadequacies or non-compliance, could materially damage our reputation, lead to civil or criminal penalties, or both, which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Acquisitions and Expansion Activities
Future acquisitions and expansion activities may disrupt our business, dilute shareholder value and adversely affect our operating results.
While we seek continued organic growth, we may consider the acquisition of other businesses. If we do seek acquisitions, we expect that other banking and financial companies, many of which have significantly greater resources, will compete with us to acquire financial services businesses. This competition could increase prices for potential acquisitions that we believe are attractive. In addition, acquisitions are subject to various regulatory approvals. If we fail to receive the appropriate regulatory approvals, we will not be able to consummate an acquisition that we may believe is in our best interests. Additionally, regulatory approvals could contain conditions that reduce the anticipated benefits of a contemplated transaction. Any acquisition could be dilutive to our earnings and shareholders’ equity per share of our common stock.
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To the extent that we grow through acquisitions, we cannot assure you that we will be able to adequately or profitably manage this growth. Acquiring other banks, banking centers, or businesses, as well as other geographic (domestic and international) and product expansion activities, involve various risks, including: risks of unknown or contingent liabilities; unanticipated costs and delays; risks that acquired new businesses will not perform consistent with our growth and profitability expectations; risks of entering new markets (domestic and international) or product areas where we have limited experience; risks that growth will strain our infrastructure, staff, internal controls and management, which may require additional personnel, time and expenditures; exposure to potential asset quality issues with acquired institutions; difficulties, expenses and delays in integrating the operations and personnel of acquired institutions or business generation teams; potential disruptions to our business; possible loss of key employees and customers of acquired institutions; potential short-term decreases in profitability; and diversion of our management’s time and attention from our existing operations and business.
Risks Related to our Indebtedness
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our debt, including the Senior Notes.
Our ability to make scheduled payments of principal and interest or to satisfy our obligations in respect of our debt or to refinance our debt will depend on our future operating performance. Prevailing economic conditions (including low interest rates and reduced economic activity due to COVID-19), regulatory constraints, including, among other things, limitations on distributions to us from our subsidiaries and required capital levels with respect to our subsidiary bank and non-banking subsidiaries, and financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control, will also affect our ability to meet these needs. We may not be able to generate sufficient cash flows from operations, or obtain future borrowings in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay our debt, or to fund our other liquidity needs. We may need to refinance all or a portion of our debt on or before maturity. We may not be able to refinance any of our debt when needed on commercially reasonable terms or at all.
We and Amerant Florida, the subsidiary guarantor, are each a holding company with limited operations and depend on our subsidiaries for the funds required to make payments of principal and interest on the Senior Notes.
We and the subsidiary guarantor are each a separate and distinct legal entity from the Bank and our other subsidiaries. Our and our subsidiary guarantor’s primary source of funds to make payments of principal and interest on the Senior Notes and to satisfy any obligations under the guarantee, respectively, and to satisfy any other financial obligations are dividends from the Bank. Our and the subsidiary guarantor’s ability to receive dividends from the Bank is contingent on a number of factors, including the Bank’s ability to meet applicable regulatory capital requirements, the Bank’s profitability and earnings, and the general strength of its balance sheet. Various federal and state regulatory provisions limit the amount of dividends bank subsidiaries are permitted to pay to their holding companies without regulatory approval. In general, the Bank may only pay dividends either out of its net income after any required transfers to surplus or reserves have been made or out of its retained earnings. In addition, the Federal Reserve and the FDIC have issued policy statements stating that insured banks and bank holding companies generally should pay dividends only out of current operating earnings.
Banks and their holding companies are required to maintain a capital conservation buffer of 2.5% in addition to satisfying other applicable regulatory capital ratios. Banking institutions that do not maintain capital in excess of the capital conservation buffer may face constraints on dividends, equity repurchases and executive compensation based on the amount of the shortfall. Accordingly, if the Bank fails to maintain the applicable minimum capital ratios and the capital conservation buffer, dividends to us or the subsidiary guarantor from the Bank may be prohibited or limited, and there may be insufficient funds to make principal and interest payments on the Senior Notes or to satisfy any obligation under the guarantee.
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In addition, state or federal banking regulators have broad authority to restrict the payment of dividends, including in circumstances where a bank under such regulator’s jurisdiction engages in (or is about to engage in) unsafe or unsound practices. Such regulators have the authority to require that a bank cease and desist from unsafe and unsound practices and to prevent a bank from paying a dividend if its financial condition is such that the regulator views the payment of a dividend to constitute an unsafe or unsound practice.
Accordingly, we can provide no assurance that we or the subsidiary guarantor will receive dividends from the Bank in an amount sufficient to pay the principal of, or interest on, the Notes or to satisfy any obligations under the guarantee. In addition, our right and the rights of our creditors, including holders of the Senior Notes, to participate in the assets of any non-guarantor subsidiary upon its liquidation or reorganization would be subject to the prior claims of such non-guarantor subsidiary’s creditors, except to the extent that we or the subsidiary guarantor may ourselves be a creditor with recognized claims against such non-guarantor subsidiary.
We may incur a substantial level of debt that could materially adversely affect our ability to generate sufficient cash to fulfill our obligations under the Senior Notes.
Neither we, nor any of our subsidiaries, are subject to any limitations under the terms of the indenture governing the terms of the Senior Notes from issuing, accepting or incurring any amount of additional debt, deposits or other liabilities, including senior indebtedness or other obligations ranking equally with the Senior Notes. We expect that we and our subsidiaries will incur additional debt and other liabilities from time to time, and our level of debt and the risks related thereto could increase.
A substantial level of debt could have important consequences to us, holders of the Senior Notes and our shareholders, including the following: making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our debt, including the Senior Notes; requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our debt, thereby reducing funds available for other purposes; increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions, which could place us at a disadvantage relative to our competitors that have less debt; limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industries in which we operate; and limiting our ability to borrow additional funds, or to dispose of assets to raise funds, if needed, for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other corporate purposes.
Risks Related to External and Market Factors
Our business may be adversely affected by economic conditions in general and by conditions in the financial markets.
We are exposed to downturns in the U.S. economy and market conditions generally. The COVID-19 pandemic has had, and another pandemic in the future could have, a negative impact on the economy and financial markets, globally and in the United States. In many countries, including the United States, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant negative impact on economic activity and has contributed to significant volatility and negative pressure in financial markets. The outbreak has been continuously evolving and actions taken around the world to help mitigate its spread have had and are expected to continue to have an adverse impact on the economies and financial markets of many regions, including the markets we serve as well as industries in which we regularly extend credit.
While domestic demand for loans has relatively increased since the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic, additional significant gains will depend on sustained economic growth. In addition, interest rates have been low for an extended period in recent years and remain at historically low levels that have placed and continue to place pressure on our NIM. Any further declines in interest rates will place additional competitive pressure on net interest margins. On the contrary, increases in interest rates will generate competitive pressures on the deposit cost of funds. We are unable to accurately predict the pace and magnitude of changes to interest rates, or the impact these changes will have on our results of operations.
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Although there have been recent positive developments in relation to unemployment data, the housing sector, and credit quality, we do not expect that the current uncertain economic conditions in the economy will improve significantly in the near term. If the economy were to deteriorate further, it may impact us in significant and unpredictable ways. In connection with these events, we may face the following particular risks: market developments may negatively affect industries we extend credit to and may result in increased delinquencies and default rates, which, among other effects, could negatively impact our charge-offs and provision for loan losses; market disruptions could make valuation of assets more difficult and subjective and may negatively affect our ability to measure the fair value of our assets; and, loan performance could deteriorate, loan default levels and foreclosure activity increase and or our assets could materially decline in value. Any of these risks individually or a combination could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
For an additional discussion on the potential risks posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, see the risk captioned “The COVID-19 pandemic and actions taken by governmental authorities to mitigate its spread has significantly impacted economic conditions, or an outbreak of another highly contagious disease, could adversely affect our business activities, results of operations and financial condition.” above.
Risks Related to Regulatory and Legal Matters
We are subject to extensive regulation that could limit or restrict our activities and adversely affect our earnings.
We and our subsidiaries are regulated by several regulators, including the Federal Reserve, the OCC, the FDIC, the SEC, FINRA, and CIMA. Our success is affected by regulations affecting banks and bank holding companies, and the securities markets, and our costs of compliance could adversely affect our earnings. Banking regulations are primarily intended to protect depositors and the FDIC’s DIF, not shareholders. From time to time, regulators raise issues during examinations of us which, if not determined satisfactorily, could have a material adverse effect on us. Compliance with applicable laws and regulations is time consuming and costly and may affect our profitability.
The financial services industry also is subject to frequent legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes. The nature, effects and timing of administrative and legislative change, and possible changes in regulation or regulatory approach resulting from the 2020 general election cannot be predicted. The federal bank regulators and the Treasury Department, as well as the Congress and the President, are evaluating the regulation of banks, other financial services providers and the financial markets and such changes, if any, could require us to maintain more capital and liquidity, and restrict our activities, which could adversely affect our growth, profitability and financial condition.
Litigation and regulatory investigations are increasingly common in our businesses and may result in significant financial losses and/or harm to our reputation.
We face risks of litigation and regulatory investigations and actions in the ordinary course of operating our businesses, including the risk of class action lawsuits. Plaintiffs in class action and other lawsuits against us may seek very large and/or indeterminate amounts, including punitive and treble damages. Due to the vagaries of litigation, the outcome of a litigation matter and the amount or range of potential loss at particular points in time may normally be difficult to ascertain. We presently do not have any material pending litigation or regulatory matters affecting us.
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A substantial legal liability or a significant federal, state or other regulatory action against us, as well as regulatory inquiries or investigations, could harm our reputation, result in material fines or penalties, result in significant legal costs, divert management resources away from our business, and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our ability to expand on our existing business, financial condition and results of operations. Even if we ultimately prevail in the litigation, regulatory action or investigation, our ability to attract new customers, retain our current customers and recruit and retain employees could be materially and adversely affected. Regulatory inquiries and litigation may also adversely affect the prices or volatility of our securities specifically, or the securities of our industry, generally.
We are subject to capital adequacy and liquidity standards, and if we fail to meet these standards our financial condition and operations would be adversely affected.
We, as a bank holding company, and the Bank are subject to capital rules of the Federal Reserve and the OCC, that implement a set of capital requirements issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision known as Basel III. The Basel III Capital Rules include a minimum ratio of CET1 capital to risk-weighted assets of at least 7% (a minimum of 4.5% plus a capital conservation buffer of 2.5% of risk-weighted assets); a Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of at least 8.5% (a minimum of 6.0% plus a capital conservation buffer of 2.5%), a total capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of at least 10.5% (a minimum of 8.0% plus a capital conservation buffer of 2.5%) and a leverage ratio of Tier 1 capital to total consolidated assets of at least 4.0%. See “Supervision and Regulation—Basel III Capital Rules.”
The capital rules also include stringent criteria for capital instruments to qualify as Tier 1 or Tier 2 capital. For example, the rules provide that newly issued trust preferred securities cannot be a component of a holding company’s Tier 1 capital. As of December 31, 2020, we had $62.3 million of trust preferred securities outstanding that were issued as Tier 1 capital, as permitted by a grandfather provision in the capital rules, but this grandfather provision may cease to apply if we grow to $15 billion or more in total assets. We have established capital ratio targets that align with U.S. regulatory expectations under the Basel III Capital Rules. Any failure to remain “well capitalized,” for bank regulatory purposes, including meeting the Basel III Capital Rule’s conservation buffer, could affect customer confidence, and our: ability to grow; costs of and availability of funds; FDIC deposit insurance premiums; ability to raise, rollover or replace brokered deposits; ability to make acquisitions, open new branches or engage in new activities; flexibility if we become subject to prompt corrective action restrictions; ability to make payments of principal and interest on our capital instruments; and ability to pay dividends on our capital stock.
The regulatory capital rules applicable to us and the Bank may continue to change due to new requirements established by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision or legislative, regulatory or accounting changes in the United States. We cannot predict the effect that any changes to current capital requirements would have on us and the Bank.
We will be subject to heightened regulatory requirements if our total assets grow in excess of $10 billion.
As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, our total assets were $7.8 billion and $8.0 billion, respectively. Based on our current total assets and growth strategy, we anticipate our total assets may exceed $10 billion within the next five years. In addition to our current regulatory requirements, banks with $10 billion or more in total assets are, among other things: examined directly by the CFPB with respect to various federal consumer financial laws; subject to reduced dividends on the Bank’s holdings of Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta common stock; subject to limits on interchange fees pursuant to the “Durbin Amendment” to the Dodd-Frank Act; subject to certain enhanced prudential standards; and no longer treated as a “small institution” for FDIC deposit insurance assessment purposes.
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Compliance with these additional ongoing requirements may necessitate additional personnel, the design and implementation of additional internal controls, or the incurrence of other significant expenses, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Our regulators may also consider our preparation for compliance with these regulatory requirements in the course of examining our operations generally or when considering any request from us or the Bank.
The Federal Reserve may require us to commit capital resources to support the Bank.
As a matter of policy, the Federal Reserve, which examines us, expects a bank holding company to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to a subsidiary bank and to commit resources to support such subsidiary bank. The Federal Reserve may require a bank holding company to make capital injections into a troubled subsidiary bank. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act amended the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Act to require that all companies that control an FDIC-insured depository institution serve as a source of financial strength to the depository institution. Under this requirement, we could be required to provide financial assistance to the Bank should it experience financial distress, even if further investment was not otherwise warranted. See “Supervision and Regulation.”
We may face higher risks of noncompliance with the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations than other financial institutions.
The USA Patriot and BSA and the related federal regulations require banks to establish anti-money laundering programs that include, policies, procedures and controls to detect, prevent and report money laundering and terrorist financing and to verify the identity of their customers and of beneficial owners of their legal entity customers. In addition, FinCEN, which was established as part of the Treasury Department to combat money laundering, is authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of anti-money laundering rules.
There is also regulatory scrutiny of compliance with the rules of the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC which administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions based on U.S. foreign policy and national security goals, including sanctions against foreign countries, regimes and individuals, terrorists, international narcotics traffickers, and those involved in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Executive Orders have sanctioned the Venezuelan government and entities it owns, and certain Venezuelan persons. In addition, the OCC has broad authority to bring enforcement actions and to impose monetary penalties if it determines that there are deficiencies in the Bank’s compliance with anti-money laundering laws.
Monitoring compliance with anti-money laundering and OFAC rules is complex and expensive. The risk of noncompliance with such rules can be more acute for financial institutions like us that have a significant number of customers from, or which do business in Latin America. As of December 31, 2020, $2.1 billion, or 37.0%, of our total deposits were from residents of Venezuela. Our total loan exposure to international markets, primarily individuals in Venezuela and corporations in other Latin American countries, was $152.9 million, or 2.62%, of our total loans, at December 31, 2020.
In recent years, we have expended significant management and financial resources to further strengthen our anti-money laundering compliance program. Although we believe our anti-money laundering and OFAC compliance programs, and our current policies and procedures and employees dedicated to these activities, are sufficient to comply with applicable rules and regulations, and continued enhancements are ongoing, we cannot guarantee that our program will prevent all attempts by customers to utilize the Bank in money laundering or financing impermissible under current sanctions and OFAC rules, or sanctions against Venezuela, and certain persons there. If our policies, procedures and systems are deemed deficient or fail to prevent violations of law or the policies, procedures and systems of the financial institutions that we may acquire in the future are deficient, we would be subject to liability, including fines and formal regulatory enforcement actions, including possible cease and desist orders, restrictions on our ability to pay dividends, regulatory limitations on implementing certain aspects
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of our business plan, including acquisitions or banking center relocation or expansion, and require us to expend additional resources to cure any deficiency, which could materially and adversely affect us.
Failures to comply with the fair lending laws, CFPB regulations or the Community Reinvestment Act, or CRA, could adversely affect us.
The Bank is subject to, among other things, the provisions of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, or ECOA, and the Fair Housing Act, both of which prohibit discrimination based on race or color, religion, national origin, sex and familial status in any aspect of a consumer, commercial credit or residential real estate transaction. Failures to comply with ECOA, the Fair Housing Act and other fair lending laws and regulations, including CFPB regulations, could subject us to enforcement actions or litigation, and could have a material adverse effect on our business financial condition and results of operations. Our Bank is also subject to the CRA, and periodic CRA examinations by the OCC. The CRA requires us to serve our entire communities, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. Our CRA ratings could be adversely affected by actual or alleged violations of the fair lending or consumer financial protection laws. Even though we have maintained an “outstanding” CRA rating since 2000, we cannot predict our future CRA ratings. Violations of fair lending laws or if our CRA rating falls to less than “satisfactory” could adversely affect our business, including expansion through branching or acquisitions.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
A limited market exists for the Company’s shares of Class B common stock.

Although since we became a publicly traded company our shares of Class B common stock has been listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, there has been and there currently is a limited market for shares of Class B common stock and there is no assurance that an active market will develop or be sustained. In addition, on December 23, 2020, we completed a tender offer for shares of our shares of Class B common stock and purchased 4,249,785 shares of Class B common stock, representing approximately 32% of the shares of Class B common stock outstanding as of November 12, 2020. Since the completion of the tender offer, the trading volumes of our shares of Class B common stock has remain limited. If more active trading markets do not develop, you may be unable to sell or purchase shares of our Class B common stock at the volume, price and time that you desire.
Whether or not the purchase or sale prices of our shares of Class B common stock reflect a reasonable valuation of our shares of Class B common stock may depend on an active trading market developing, and thus the price you receive for our shares of Class B common stock, may not reflect its true or intrinsic value. Limited trading in our common stock may cause fluctuations in the market value of our shares of Class B common stock to be exaggerated from time to time, leading to price volatility in excess of that which would occur in a more active trading market.
Holders of shares of Class B common stock have limited voting rights. As a result, holders of shares of Class B common stock will have limited ability to influence shareholder decisions.
Generally, holders of our shares of Class B common stock are entitled to one-tenth of a vote, and vote together with holders of our shares of Class A common stock on a combined basis, on the ratification of the appointment of our auditors for a given fiscal year, if we present such a proposal for shareholder consideration. Our shares of Class B common stock has no other voting rights, except as required by the Florida Business Corporation Act to vote as a voting group on any amendment, alteration or repeal of our amended and restated articles of incorporation, including any such events as a result of a merger, consolidation or otherwise that significantly and adversely affects the rights or voting powers of our shares of Class B common stock. As a result, virtually all matters submitted to our shareholders will be decided by the vote of holders of our shares of Class A common stock and the market price of our shares of Class B common stock could be adversely affected.

Certain of our existing shareholders could exert significant control over the Company.

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As of March 5, 2021, our executive officers, directors and certain greater than 5% holders of our Class A common stock beneficially owns outstanding shares representing, in the aggregate, approximately 21% of the outstanding shares of our voting Class A common stock (without giving effect to the broad family holdings of the Marturet and Vollmer families which will bring the percentage to an aggregate of approximately 33%.) As a result, these shareholders, if they act individually or together, may exert a significant degree of influence over our management and affairs and over matters requiring shareholder approval, including the election of directors and approval of significant corporate transactions. Furthermore, the interests of this concentration of ownership may not always coincide with the interests of other shareholders and, accordingly, they could cause us to enter into transactions or agreements which we might not otherwise consider or prevent us from adopting actions that we might otherwise implement. This concentration of ownership of the Company’s shares of Class A common stock may delay or prevent a merger or acquisition or other transaction resulting in a change in control of the Company even when other shareholders may consider the transaction beneficial, and might adversely affect the market price of our shares of Class A and Class B common stock.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our common stock and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If few securities or industry analysts cover us, the trading price for our common stock may be adversely affected. If one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades our common stock or publishes incorrect or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our common stock would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of the Company or fails to publish reports on us regularly, or downgrades our common stock, demand for our common stock could decrease, which could cause the price of our common stock or trading volume to decline.
The stock price of financial institutions, like Amerant, may fluctuate significantly.

We cannot predict the prices at which our Company shares will continue to trade. You should consider an investment in our common stock to be risky. The trading price of our common stock is subject to wide fluctuations and may be subject to fluctuations in the future. The market price of our common stock could be subject to significant variations in response to, among other things, the factors described in this “Risk Factors” section, and other factors, some of which are beyond our control, including:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results due to factors related to our business;
the success or failure of our business strategies;
quarterly or annual earnings and earnings expectations for our industry, and for us;
our ability to obtain financing as needed;
our announcements or our competitors’ announcements regarding new products or services, enhancements, significant contracts, acquisitions or strategic investments;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;
changes in tax laws;
changes in analysts’ recommendations or projections;
the operating and stock price performance of other comparable companies;
investor perceptions of the Company and the banking industry;
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our profile, dividend policy or market capitalization may not fit the investment objectives of a large number of shareholders, many of whom are Venezuelans who became shareholders as a result of the Spin-off;
events affecting our shareholders in Venezuela, including hyperinflation and currency controls;
the intent of our shareholders, including institutional investors, to hold or sell their Company Shares;
fluctuations in the stock markets or in the values of financial institution stocks, generally;
changes in laws and regulations, including banking laws and regulations, affecting our business; and
general economic conditions and other external factors.
Stock markets in general have experienced volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of a particular company or industry. These broad market fluctuations, as well as general economic, systemic, political and market conditions, including recessions, loss of investor confidence, and interest rate changes, may negatively affect the market price of our common stock.
We have the ability to issue additional equity securities, which would lead to dilution of our issued and outstanding Company Shares.
The issuance of additional equity securities or securities convertible into equity securities would result in dilution of our existing shareholders’ equity interests. In addition, we are authorized to issue up to 400 million shares of our Class A common stock and up to 100 million shares of our Class B common stock. We are authorized to issue, without shareholder approval, up to 50 million shares of preferred stock in one or more series, which may give other shareholders dividend, conversion, voting, and liquidation rights, among other rights, that may be superior to the rights of holders of our common stock. We are authorized to issue, without shareholder approval, except as required by law or the Nasdaq Global Select Market, securities convertible into either common stock or preferred stock. Furthermore, we have adopted an equity compensation program for our employees, which also could result in dilution of our existing shareholders’ equity interests.
In addition, Federal Reserve policy requires bank holding companies’ capital to be comprised predominantly of voting common stock. Class B common stock is non-voting common stock for Federal Reserve purposes, therefore, we expect future issuances of Company Shares will be Class A common stock. These new issuances of Class A common stock, as well as their voting rights, may dilute the interests of our Class A shareholders, and increase the market for, and liquidity of, our Class A common stock generally, as compared to the market for, and liquidity of, our Class B common stock.
Our dual classes of Company Shares may limit investments by investors using index-based strategies.
Certain major providers of securities indices have determined to exclude shares of companies with classes of common stock with different voting rights. These actions may limit investment in Company Shares by mutual funds, exchange traded funds, or ETFs, and other investors basing their strategies on such securities indices, which could adversely affect the value and liquidity of Company Shares.
We do not currently intend to pay dividends on our common stock.
We do not intend to pay any dividends to holders of our common stock for the foreseeable future. We currently intend to invest our future earnings, if any, to fund our growth or improve our costs and capital structure. Therefore, you are not likely to receive any dividends on your common stock for the foreseeable future, and the performance of an investment in our common stock will depend upon any future appreciation in its value. Our common stock could decline or increase in value.
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Certain provisions of our amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, Florida law, and U.S. banking laws could have anti-takeover effects.
Certain provisions of our amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, as well as Florida law, and the BHC Act, and Change in Bank Control Act, could delay or prevent a change of control that you may favor. Our amended and restated articles of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws include certain provisions that could delay a takeover or change in control of us, including: the exclusive right of our board to fill any director vacancy; advance notice requirements for shareholder proposals and director nominations; provisions limiting the shareholders’ ability to call special meetings of shareholders or to take action by written consent; and the ability of our board to designate the terms of and issue new series of preferred stock without shareholder approval, which could be used, among other things, to institute a rights plan that would have the effect of significantly diluting the stock ownership of a potential hostile acquirer, likely preventing acquisitions that have not been approved by our board.
The Florida Business Corporation Act contains a control-share acquisition statute that provides that a person who acquires shares in an “issuing public corporation,” as defined in the statute, in excess of certain specified thresholds generally will not have any voting rights with respect to such shares, unless such voting rights are approved by the holders of a majority of the votes of each class of securities entitled to vote separately, excluding shares held or controlled by the acquiring person. Furthermore, the BHC Act and the Change in Bank Control Act impose notice, application and approvals and ongoing regulatory requirements on any shareholder or other party that seeks to acquire direct or indirect “control” of bank holding companies, such as ourselves.
We are an “emerging growth company,” and, as a result of the reduced disclosure and governance requirements applicable to emerging growth companies, our common stock may be less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we intend to take advantage of some of the exemptions from reporting requirements that are afforded to emerging growth companies including, but not limited to, exemption from the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we intend to rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock prices may become more volatile. We may take advantage of these exemptions until we are no longer an emerging growth company.
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General Risk Factors
We may be unable to attract and retain key people to support our business.
Our success depends, in large part, on our ability to attract and retain key people. We compete with other financial services companies for people primarily on the basis of compensation, benefits, the strength of the Company and the ability of the candidate to grow within the Company. Intense competition exists for key employees with demonstrated ability, and we may be unable to hire or retain such employees, including those needed to implement our business strategy. Effective succession planning is also important to our long-term success. The unexpected loss of services of one or more of our key personnel and failure to effectively transfer knowledge and smooth transitions involving key personnel could have material adverse effects on our business due to loss of their skills, knowledge of our business, their years of industry experience and the potential difficulty of timely finding qualified replacement employees. We may not be able to attract and retain qualified people to fill open key positions or replace or succeed members of our senior management team or other key personnel. Rules implementing the executive compensation provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act may limit the type and structure of compensation arrangements into which we may enter with certain of our employees and officers. Our regulators may also restrict compensation through rules and practices intended to avoid risks. These restrictions could negatively affect our ability to compete with other companies in recruiting and retaining key personnel.
Severe weather, natural disasters, global pandemics, acts of war or terrorism, theft, civil unrest, government expropriation or other external events could have significant effects on our business.
Severe weather and natural disasters, including hurricanes, tornados, earthquakes, fires, droughts and floods, acts of war or terrorism, epidemics and global pandemics (such as the recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus COVID-19), theft, civil unrest, government expropriation, condemnation or other external events in the markets where we operate or where our customers live (including Venezuela, which is experiencing a depreciated currency and hyperinflation) could have a significant effect on our ability to conduct business. Such events could affect the stability of our deposit base, impair the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans, impair the value of collateral securing loans, cause significant property damage, impair employee productivity, result in loss of revenue and/or cause us to incur additional expenses. Although management has established disaster recovery and business continuity policies and procedures, the occurrence of any such event could have a material adverse effect on our business, which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Our business is mainly concentrated in three markets—South Florida, the greater Houston, Texas area and the greater New York City area, which may increase our risks from extreme weather.

Item 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
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Item 2. PROPERTIES
We conduct our business from our approximately 177,000 square foot headquarters building in Coral Gables, Florida, located at 220 Alhambra Circle, Coral Gables, Florida 33134. We own the Coral Gables location and, as of December 31, 2020, occupy approximately 54,200 square feet, or approximately 31%, of the building, with the remaining approximately 122,800 square feet, or approximately 69%, either leased to third-parties or available for lease. Additionally, a significant portion of our support service units operate out of our approximately 100,000 square feet operations center in the Beacon Industrial Park area of Doral, Florida (the “Beacon Operations Center”). In 2020, the Company sold the Beacon Operations Center. Following the sale of the Beacon Operations Center, the Company leased-back the property for a two-year term ending in December 2022. We continue to occupy 100% of this building.

As of December 31, 2020, we have 25 banking centers, including 18 in Florida and 7 in Texas. We occupy 16 banking centers under lease agreements, six owned banking centers are located on ground subject to long-term land leases of 20 to 30 years, each with an option, or options, to renew and one owned banking center is located on ground subject to a long-term land lease that expires in 2021. This land lease has been extended to expire on December 23, 2021. Our banking centers range from approximately 1,900 square feet to approximately 7,000 square feet, average approximately 4,450 square feet and total approximately 103,100 square feet. The total monthly rent for the banking centers is approximately $517 thousand and the total annual rental expense for the leased banking centers is approximately $7.5 million, including the long-term land leases.

In addition to the banking centers, we lease approximately 14,000 square feet in Houston, Texas, which we use as our Texas regional office. The annual rent is approximately $850 thousand.

We lease approximately 6,000 square feet in New York City, which is primarily used as a LPO for CRE loans. The annual rent is approximately $533 thousand. We also lease approximately 1,894 square feet in Dallas, Texas, as a LPO. The annual rent is approximately $79 thousand.

Our various leases have periodic escalation clauses, and may have options for extensions and other customary terms.

Item 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are, from time to time, in the ordinary course, engaged in litigation, and we have a small number of unresolved claims pending, including the one described in more detail below. In addition, as part of the ordinary course of business, we are parties to litigation involving claims relating to the ownership of funds in particular accounts, the collection of delinquent accounts, credit relationships, challenges to security interests in collateral and foreclosure interests, which are incidental to our regular business activities. While the ultimate liability with respect to these other litigation matters and claims cannot be determined at this time, we believe that potential liabilities relating to pending matters are not likely to be material to our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. Where appropriate, reserves for these various matters of litigation are established, under FASB ASC Topic 450, Contingencies, based in part upon management’s judgment and the advice of legal counsel.
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At least quarterly, we assess our liabilities and contingencies in connection with outstanding legal proceedings utilizing the latest information available. For those matters where it is probable that we will incur a loss and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated, we record a liability in our consolidated financial statements. These legal reserves may be increased or decreased to reflect any relevant developments based on our quarterly reviews. For other matters, where a loss is not probable or the amount of the loss cannot be estimated, we have not accrued legal reserves, consistent with applicable accounting guidance. Based on information currently available to us, advice of counsel, and available insurance coverage, we believe that our established reserves are adequate and the liabilities arising from the legal proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition. We note, however, that in light of the inherent uncertainty in legal proceedings there can be no assurance that the ultimate resolution will not exceed established reserves. As a result, the outcome of a particular matter or a combination of matters, if unfavorable, may be material to our financial position, results of operations or cash flows for a particular period, depending upon the size of the loss or our income for that particular period.

Item 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

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PART II
Item 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUERS PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Our shares of Class A common stock, par value $0.10 per share, and our shares of Class B common stock, par value $0.10 per share, are listed and trade on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbols “AMTB and “AMTBB,” respectively.
As of March 5, 2021, we had 28,996,122 outstanding shares of Class A common stock held by approximately 1,333 shareholders and 1,362 outstanding shares of Class B common stock held by approximately 9,036,352 shareholders. The number of shareholders consists of shareholders of record, in each case, including Cede & Co., a nominee for The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, which holds shares of our Class A common stock and shares of our Class B common stock on behalf of an indeterminate number of beneficial owners. All of the Company’s shares of Class A and Class B common stock held by brokerage firms, banks and other financial institutions as nominees for beneficial owners are deposited into participant accounts at DTC, and are considered to be held of record by Cede & Co. as one shareholder. Because many of our Class A and Class B common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of shareholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of shareholders represented by these record holders.
Dividends
The Company has not paid its shareholders any dividend since the Spin-off from its Former Parent.
As a bank holding company, our ability to pay dividends is affected by the policies and enforcement powers of the Federal Reserve. In addition, because we are a bank holding company, we are dependent upon the payment of dividends by the Bank to us as our principal source of funds to pay dividends in the future, if any, and to make other payments. The Bank is also subject to various legal, regulatory and other restrictions on its ability to pay dividends and make other distributions and payments to us. For further information, see “Supervision and Regulation—Payment of Dividends.”
We do not anticipate paying any dividends to holders of our common stock in the foreseeable future because we expect to retain earnings to support our business plan. The declaration and payment of dividends, if any, however, will be subject to our board of directors’ discretion and will depend, among other things, upon our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, capital adequacy, cash requirements, prospects, regulatory capital and limitations, and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. The payment of cash dividends, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time at the sole discretion of our board of directors.
Stock Performance Graph
The following stock performance graph and related disclosures do not constitute soliciting material and should not be deemed filed or incorporated by reference into any other filing by us under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except to the extent we specifically incorporate them by reference therein.
The following graph compares the cumulative total return of the Class A common stock and the Class B common stock from August 29, 2018 to December 31, 2020, as compared to the cumulative total return on stocks included in the NASDAQ Composite Index and the KBW Nasdaq Regional Bank Index over such period. Cumulative total return expressed in Dollars assumes an investment of $100 on August 29, 2018 and reinvestment of dividends as paid.

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https://cdn.kscope.io/da5890ffa82274ac0ef10dddb7a2e42a-amtb-20201231_g2.jpg
(1) Shares of Company Class A common stock and Class B common stock were distributed in the Spin-off at the end of the day on Friday, August 10, 2018 and were listed for trading beginning on Monday, August 13, 2018.  Pursuant to S&P Global Market Intelligence data, August 29, 2018 is the first date pricing information was available for our common stock and no trading occurred until August 29, 2018.
Total Return Performance (in Dollars)
August 29, 2018December 31, 2018December 31, 2019December 31, 2020
AMTB$100.00 $72.28 $121.05 $84.44 
AMTBB100.00 55.67 90.28 64.61 
NASDAQ Composite Index100.00 81.82 110.64 158.92 
KBW Index100.00 77.27 102.11 88.19 
The above graph and table illustrate the performance of Company Class A and Class B common stock from August 29, 2018, the first day that pricing information was available, and reflect:

the Spin-off;
the IPO; and
the Company's repurchase of certain of its shares of Class B common stock from the Former Parent.







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Item 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

Selected Consolidated Financial Information
The following table sets forth selected financial information derived from our audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, 2018 and 2017. The selected financial information should be read in conjunction with the Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and our audited consolidated financial statements and the corresponding notes included in this Form 10-K.
December 31,
(in thousands)2020201920182017
Consolidated Balance Sheets
Total assets$7,770,893 $7,985,399 $8,124,347 $8,436,767 
Total investments1,372,567 1,739,410 1,741,428 1,846,951 
Total gross loans held for investment (1)
5,842,337 5,744,339 5,920,175 6,066,225 
Allowance for loan losses110,902 52,223 61,762 72,000 
Total deposits5,731,643 5,757,143 6,032,686 6,322,973 
Senior notes (2)
58,577 — — — 
Junior subordinated debentures (3)
64,178 92,246 118,110 118,110 
Advances from the FHLB and other borrowings1,050,000 1,235,000 1,166,000 1,173,000 
Stockholders' equity (4)
783,421 834,701 747,418 753,450 
Assets under management and custody (5)
1,972,321 1,815,848 1,592,257 1,750,535 
Years Ended December 31,
(in thousands, except per share amounts and percentages)2020201920182017
Consolidated Results of Operations
Net interest income$189,552 $213,088 $219,039 $209,710 
Provision for (reversal of) loan losses88,620 (3,150)375 (3,490)
Noninterest income73,470 57,110 53,875 71,485 
Noninterest expense178,736 209,317 214,973 207,636 
Net (loss) income (1,722)51,334 45,833 43,057 
Effective income tax rate60.27 %19.83 %20.38 %44.12 %
Common Share Data (6)
Stockholders' book value per common share $20.70 $19.35 $17.31 $17.73 
Tangible stockholders' equity (book value) per common share (7)
20.13 18.84 16.82 17.23 
Basic (loss) earnings per common share(0.04)1.21 1.08 1.01 
Diluted (loss) earnings per common share(0.04)1.20 1.08 1.01 
Basic weighted average shares outstanding41,737 42,543 42,487 42,489 
Diluted weighted average shares outstanding (8)
41,737 42,939 42,487 42,489 
Cash dividend declared per common share (9)
— — 0.94 — 
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